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Title: Revisiting the question of centripetal and centrifugal forces in urban systems


Krzysztofik, Robert

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Geographia Polonica Vol. 89 No. 4 (2016)



Place of publishing:

Warszawa ; Warszawa


24 cm

Type of object:



The concept of centripetal and centrifugal forces was formally applied to the geographical sciences by Charles C. Colby in the 1930s; and for decades, these terms have been key elements used in explaining the development of cities and regions. Given that geographical research treats these concepts as represented by scientific metaphors, the work described in this article has sought to look critically at relevant issues from the physical point of view, i.e. in terms of Newtonian mechanics. Although the use of these metaphors is not always found to reflect the reality characterising the observed elements in the socio-economic system of a city and its surroundings, these may serve as an important element of explanations of ‘classical’ geography, new economic geography and Batty’s concept of the “new science of cities”, providing that certain objections are taken account of.


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Geographia Polonica





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oai:rcin.org.pl:61190 ; 0016-7282 ; 10.7163/GPol.0066


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link




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Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-SA 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-SA 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure



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Last modified:

Mar 25, 2021

In our library since:

Dec 16, 2016

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