RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: Settlement concentration of economic potential represented by IT corporations


Kilar, Wioletta

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Geographia Polonica Vol. 88 No. 1 (2015)



Place of publishing:



24 cm

Type of object:



The paper attempts to discuss research on spatial variation in the distribution of the headquarters of 100 leading IT corporations by city in the years 2003-2011. The research shows that the global space offers powerful opportunities for differentiating the headquarters of leading IT corporations. This is emphasised by the number of headquarters per city and their spatial concentration. Predominantly, they can be found in six areas: the Japanese-Korean area, eastern China, the West Coast of the USA, the East Coast of the USA, the central part of the USA, and north-western Europe. Tokyo, Kyoto, Hsinchu, Paris, Santa Clara, San Jose, Sunnyvale and Taipei offer the best conditions for locating headquarters of IT corporations and house the highest number of headquarters.


1. Aoyama Y., Ratick S.J., 2007. Trust, transactions, and Information Technologies in the U.S. logistics industry. Economic Geography, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 159-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2007.tb00341.x -
2. Arauzo-Carod J.M., Manjón-Antolín M.C., 2007. Entrepreneurship, industrial location and economic growth. New Horizons in Regional Science, Cheltenham-Northampton: Edward Elgar.
3. Aung K., 2001. Decentralization of production and the formation of technology regions: A case study of the Koriyama Technopolis. Geographical Review of Japan, ser. B, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 199-211.
4. Beugeldsdijk S., 2007. The regional environment and a firm's innovative performance: A plea for a multilevel interactionist approach. Economic Geography, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 181-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2007.tb00342.x -
5. Borchert J.R., 1978. Major control points in American economic geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 214-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1978.tb01192.x -
6. Browen J.T., Leinbach T.R., 2006. Competitive advantage in global production networks: Air freight services and the electronics industry in Southeast Asia. Economic Geography, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 147-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2006.tb00294.x -
7. Burns L.S., 1977. The location of the headquarters of industrial companies: A comment. Urban Studies, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 211-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420987720080371 -
8. Dicken P., 1977. A note of location theory and the large business enterprise. Area, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 138-143.
9. Dluhosch B., 2000. Industrial location and economic integration: Centrifugal and centripetal forces in the new Europe. Cheltenham-Northampton: Edward Elgar.
10. Drucker J., 2011. Regional industrial structure concentration in the United States: Trends and implications. Economic Geography, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 421-452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2011.01129.x -
11. Evans A.W., 1973. The location of the headquarters of industrial companies. Urban Studies, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 387-395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420987320080521 -
12. Gierańczyk W., 2008. Problematyka definiowania zmian w tendencjach lokalizacyjnych przedsiębiorstw przemysłowych w dobie globalizacji. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 11, pp. 86-96.
13. Hayter R., Watts H.D., 1984. The geography of enterprise: A reappraisal. Progress in Human Geography, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 157-181.
14. Hino M., 1995. The agglomeration of branch offices and their recent changes in major Japanese cities. Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers. The Japan Association of Economic Geographers, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 192-207.
15. Holloway S.R., Wheeler J.O., 1991. Corporate headquarters relocation and changes in metropolitan corporate dominance, 1980-1987. Economic Geography, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 54-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/143636 -
16. Kamp B., 2007. Location behaviour and relationship stability in international business networks: Evidence from the automotive industry. Routledge Studies in Business Organizations and Networks, London-New York: Routledge.
17. Karimi H.A., Hammad A., 2004. Telegeoinformatics: Location-based computing and services. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
18. Kilar W., 2009a. Koncentracja przestrzenna światowych firm informatycznych. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 12, pp. 97-108.
19. Kilar W., 2009b. Zróżnicowanie potencjału ekonomicznego światowych korporacji informatycznych. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 13, pp. 110-121.
20. Kilar W., 2014a. Spatial concentration of IT corporation headquarters. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 25, pp. 56-80
21. Kilar W., 2014b. Differentiation of Visegrad Group international corporations in comparison to world's largest corporations [in:] D. Kiendl- -Wendner, K. Wach (eds.), International competitiveness in Visegrad Countries: Macro and micro perspectives. Graz: Fachhochschule Joanneum, pp. 171-186.
22. Kilar W., 2014c. Problematyka lokalizacji korporacji ponadnarodowych (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem korporacji informatycznych). Zeszyty Naukowe Podkarpackiej Szkoły Wyższej w Jaśle, 11, pp. 163-185.
23. Kim S.J., 2006. Networks, scale, and transnational corporations: The case of the South Korean seed industry. Economic Geography, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 317-338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2006.tb00313.x -
24. Klier T.H., 2006. Where the headquarters are: Location patterns of large public companies, 1990-2000. Economic Development Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 117-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891242405286158 -
25. Liu Y., Yang Z., 2011. Location, localization and localizability: Location-awareness technology for wireless networks. New York: Springer Science, Business Media.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7371-9 -
26. McCann P., 2002. Industrial location economics. Cheltenham-Northampton: Edward Elgar.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781781950746 -
27. Ó hUallacháin B., 2012. Inventive megaregions of the United States: Technological composition and location. Economic Geography, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 165-195.
28. Pred A., 1977. City-systems in advanced economies. Past growth, present processes and future development options. London: Hutchinson University Library.
29. Rees J., 1978. Manufacturing headquarters in a postindustrial context. Economic Geography, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 337-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/143283 -
30. Semple R.K., 1973. Recent trends in the spatial concentrations of corporate headquarters, 1955-1974. Economic Geography, vol. 49, pp. 309-318.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/143234 -
31. Semple R.K., Phipps A.G., 1982. The spatial evolution of corporate headquarters within an urban systems. Urban Geography, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 258-279.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.3.3.258 -
32. Sheppard E., Maier G., Tödtling F., 1990. The geography of organizational control: Austria 1973-1981. Economic Geography, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 1-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/144103 -
33. Stryjakiewicz T., 2009. Lokalizacja firm i zachowania przestrzenne pracowników sektora informatycznego (na przykładzie poznańskiego obszaru metropolitalnego). Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 13, pp. 21-33.
34. Stutz F.P., Warf B., 2007. The world economy: Resources, location, trade and development. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
35. Śleszyński P., 2002a. Struktura i rozmieszczenie ośrodków zarządzania w polskiej gospodarce w 2000 r. Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 199-228.
36. Śleszyński P., 2002b. Struktura i koncentracja przestrzenna siedzib ważniejszych przedsiębiorstw w Warszawie w 1999 roku. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 4, pp. 89-114.
37. Takahashi S., 2001. Location factors of Japanese– Affiliated companies in the High Plains, the United States of America. Geographical Review of Japan, ser. B, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 212-222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4157/grj1984b.74.212 -
38. Taylor M.J., Thrift N., 1981. Spatial variations in Australian enterprise: The case of large firms headquartered in Melbourne and Sydney. Environment and Planning A, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 137-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a130137 -
39. Wall R.S., 2011. Sectoral differentiation and network structure within contemporary worldwide corporate networks. Economic Geography, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 267-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2011.01122.x -
40. Westaway J., 1974. The spatial hierarchy of business organizations and its implications for the British urban systems. Regional Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 145-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09595237400185141 -
41. Wheeler J.O., 1986. Corporate spatial links with financial institutions: The role of metropolitan hierarchy. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 262-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1986.tb00116.x -
42. Wheeler J.O., Park S.O., 1984. External ownership and control: the impact of industrial organization on the regional economy. Geoforum, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 243-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7185(84)90035-6 -
43. Wilczyński W., 2007. Uwagi na temat przemian współczesnego świata w świetle koncepcji geograficznego biegu dziejów i jedności geografii [in:] W. Maik, K. Rembowska, A. Suliborski (eds.), Podstawowe idee i koncepcje w geografii, vol. 3, Bydgoszcz: Wyższa Szkoła Gospodarki, pp. 55-69.
44. Zeller Ch. 2000. Rescaling power relations between trade unions and corporate management in aglobalising pharmaceutical industry: The case of the acquisition of Boehringer Manhaim by Hoffman-La Rouche. Environment and Planning A, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1545-1567.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a32100 -
45. Zioło Z., 2001. Struktura branżowa i koncentracja przestrzenna wiodących światowych firm przemysłowych. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, 3, pp. 29-41.


Geographia Polonica ; Geographia Polonica





Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:



File size 3,1 MB ; application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:53300 ; 0016-7282 ; 10.7163/GPol.0009


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link




Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure



Object collections:

Last modified:

Mar 25, 2021

In our library since:

Mar 27, 2015

Number of object content hits:


Number of object content views in PDF format


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in RDFa format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:


Objects Similar



Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information