RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: The spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and the regional connectivity in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia


Geographia Polonica Vol. 94 No. 3 (2021)



Place of publishing:



24 cm


At the end of 2019, a disease was identified as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 or COVID-19. The expected modes of transmission are direct or indirect contact, droplets, and aerosol. The spread of an infection can be also caused by interaction between regions and the proximity to a central transmission area. This article elucidates the connectivity between regions in West Kalimantan in relation to the spread of COVID-19 using network analysis, which shall be superimposed with the data pertaining to the spread of COVID-19. From the findings, Kubu Raya and Pontianak have a high number of COVID-19 cases, especially confirmed ones. Considering their centrality and block measurements, Kubu Raya is featured as region with the highest score (degree: 60.3; closeness: 71.4; betweenness: 75.6; and eigenvector: 82.4), close to Pontianak city as the capital city. When regarded from the context of regional connectivity, both areas serve as the main ‘gateways’ and ‘hubs’. Additionally, the role of each region in urban hierarchy, the number of residents and their proximity to one another also tend to affect the spread of COVID-19.


Asadi, S., Bouvier, N., Wexler, A.S., & Ristenpart, W.D. (2020). The coronavirus pandemic and aerosols: Does COVID-19 transmit via expiratory particles? Aerosol Science and Technology, 54(6), 635-638. https://doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2020.1749229 DOI
Bajardi, P., Poletto, C., Ramasco, J.J., Tizzoni, M., Colizza, V., & Vespignani, A. (2011). Human mobility networks, travel restrictions, and the global spread of 2009 H1N1 pandemic. PLoS ONE, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016591 DOI
Baker, M.G., Wilson, N., & Anglemyer, A. (2020). Successful Elimination of COVID-19 Transmission in New Zealand. The New England journal of medicine, 383(8), e56. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2025203 DOI
Bherwani, H., Anjum, S., Kumar, S., Gautam, S., Gupta, A., Kumbhare, H., Anshul, A., & Kumar, R. (2020). Understanding COVID-19 transmission through Bayesian probabilistic modeling and GIS-based Voronoi approach: a policy perspective. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23, 5846-5864. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00849-0 DOI
Borgatti, S.P., Everett, M.G., Johnson, J.C. (2013). Analyzing social networks. Sage Publications.
Borgatti, S, P., Everett, M, G., Freeman, L, C. (2002). UCINET for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis. Harvard, Analytic Technologies.
Borgatti, S, P. (1995). Centrality and AIDS. Connections 18 (1), 112-115.
Butts, C.T. (2008). Social network analysis with sna. Journal of Statistical Software, 24(6). https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v024.i06 DOI
CDC COVID-19 Response Team. (2020). Geographic differences in COVID-19 cases, deaths, and incidence - United States, February 12-April 7, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(15), 465-471. DOI
Central Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Kalbar Dalam Angka. https://kalbar.bps.go.id/
Chan, J.F.W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.H., To, K.K.W., Chu, H., Yang, J., Xing, F., Liu, J., Yip, C.C.Y., Poon, R.W.S., Tsoi, H.W., Lo, S.K.F., Chan, K.H., Poon, V.K.M., Chan, W.M., Ip, J.D., Cai, J.P., Cheng, V.C.C., Chen, H., … Yuen, K.Y. (2020). A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet, 395(10223), 514-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9 DOI
Chang, S.L., Harding, N., Zachreson, C., Cliff, O.M., Prokopenko, M. (2020). Modelling transmission and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. Nature Communications, 11, 5710. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19393-6 DOI
Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., Qiu, Y., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Wei, Y., Xia, J., Yu, T., Zhang, X., & Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7 DOI
Danon, L., Brooks-Pollock, E., Bailey, M., Keeling, M. (2020). A spatial model of CoVID-19 transmission in England and Wales: early spread and peak timing. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.12.20022566 DOI
Dinas Kesehatan Kalbar. (2020). Jumlah Terpapar COVID-19 di Kalimantan Barat. https://dinkes.kalbarprov.go.id/covid-19/
Direktorat Pengembangan Kawasan Pemukiman, Ditjen Cipta Karya Kementerian PUPR. (2020). Kebijakan Kota Baru Pontianak. http://sim.ciptakarya.pu.go.id/kotabaru/site/kebijakankotabaru/1
Downs, J., Horner, M.W. (2012). Probabilistic potential path trees for visualizing and analyzing vehicle tracking data. Journal of Transport Geography, 23, 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.017 DOI
Dunn, F.L., Atlanta, G.A. (1957). Pandemic influenza in 1957: Review of international spread of new Asian strain. Journal of the American Medical Association, 166(10), 1140-1148. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1958.02990100028006 DOI
Edmonds, E, A. (2008). Reflections on the Nature of Interaction. CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts. 3(3), 139-143. DOI
Grais, R.F., Ellis, J.H., Glass, G.E. (2003). Assessing the impact of airline travel on the geographic spread of pandemic influenza. European Journal of Epidemiology, 18(11), 1065-1072. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026140019146 DOI
Guan, W., Ni, Z., Hu, Y., Liang, W., Ou, C., He, J., Liu, L., Shan, H., Lei, C., Hui, D.S.C., Du, B., Li, L., Zeng, G., Yuen, K.Y., Chen, R., Tang, C., Wang, T., Chen, P., Xiang, J., … Zhong, N. (2020). Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(18), 1708-1720. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032 DOI
Hsu, C-I., Shih, H-H. (2008). Small-world Theory in the Study of Network Connectivity and Efficiency of Complementary International Airline Alliances. Journal of Air Transport Management, 14, 123-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2008.02.007 DOI
Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5 DOI
Inaida, S., Yasui, Y., Tada, Y., Taniguchi, K., Okabe, N. (2011). Geographic trends and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the metropolitan areas of Japan studied from the National Sentinel Data. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 64(6), 473-481.
Indonesian Air Traffic Company. (n.d.). Bandara Internasional Supadio. https://angkasapura2.co.id/id/business_relation/our_airport/21-bandara-internasional-supadio
Indonesian Shipping Company. (n.d.). Schedule and ticket reservation for ship travelling. https://www.pelni.co.id/reservasi-tiket
Indonesian Tourism. (2020). Number of airports in Indonesia, 20 most busy!. https://pariwisataindonesia.id/berita/jumlah-bandara-di-indonesia-20-paling-sibuk/
Jia, J.S., Lu, X., Yuan, Y., Xu, G., Jia, J., Christakis, N.A. (2020). Population flow drives spatio-temporal distribution of COVID-19 in China. Nature, 582(7812), 389-394. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2284-y DOI
Lawyer, G. (2016). Measuring the potential of individual airports for pandemic spread over the world airline network. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1350-4 DOI
Lee, V.J., Chiew, C.J., Khong, W.X. (2020). Interrupting transmission of COVID-19: lessons from containment efforts in Singapore. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(3), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa039 DOI
Lee, Y. (1998). Highway network connectivity, traffic flow pattern, and economic development of China's Hainan Island. Asian Geographer, 17(1-2), 115-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10225706.1998.9684039 DOI
Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., Ren, R., Leung, K.S.M., Lau, E.H.Y., Wong, J.Y., Xing, X., Xiang, N., Wu, Y., Li, C., Chen, Q., Li, D., Liu, T., Zhao, J., Liu, M., … Feng, Z. (2020). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(13), 1199-1207. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316 DOI
Li, W, K., Miyoshi, C., Pagliari, R. (2012). Dual-hub network connectivity: An analysis of all Nippon Airways' use of Tokyo's Haneda and Narita airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 23, 12-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2012.02.002 DOI
Mazhar, M., Abid, I., Hussain, S., Shahzad, N., Sohail, M., Jawed, M. (2020). The effects of regional climatic condition on the spread of COVID-19 at global scale. Science of the Total Environment, 739, 140101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140101 DOI
Merler, S., Ajelli, M. (2010). The role of population heterogeneity and human mobility in the spread of pandemic influenza. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277(1681), 557-565. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.1605 DOI
Milne, G.J., Baskaran, P., Halder, N., Karl, S., Kelso, J. (2013). Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: A modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country. BMJ Open, 3(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002518 DOI
Nijkamp, P., Priemus, H., Shefer, D. (2000). Network connectivity and multimodality: The context. Transportation Planning and Technology, 23(3), 179-182. https://doi.org/10.1080/03081060008717647 DOI
Peng, Z., Wang, R., Liu, L., Wu, H. (2020). Exploring urban spatial features of COVID-19 transmission in Wuhan based on social media data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9060402 DOI
Ratcliffe, R. (2020). First coronavirus cases confirmed in Indonesia amid fears nation is ill-prepared for an outbreak. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/02/first-coronaviruscases-confirmed-in-indonesia-amid-fears-nation-is-ill-prepared-for-outbreak
Reuters. (2020). Indonesia confirms first cases of coronavirus. https://www.bangkokpost.com/world/1869789/indonesia-confirms-first-cases-of-coronavirus
Schwartz, K.L., Murti, M., Finkelstein, M., Leis, J.A., Fitzgerald-Husek, A., Bourns, L., Meghani, H., Saunders, A., Allen, V., Yaffe, B. (2020). Lack of COVID-19 transmission on an international flight. Cmaj, 192(15), E410. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.75015 DOI
Scott, N., Baggio, R., Cooper, C. (2008). Network analysis and tourism: From theory to practice. Channel View Publications, 35. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845410896 DOI
Sokol, M. (2009). Regional connectivity. In R. Kitchin, N. Thrift (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (pp. 165-180). Vol. 9. Oxford UK: Elsevier. DOI
Tan, W., Zhao, X., Ma, X., Wang, W., Niu, P., Xu, W., Gao, G.F., Wu, G. (2020). A novel coronavirus genome identified in a cluster of pneumonia cases - Wuhan, China 2019−2020. China CDC Weekly 2(4), 61-62). DOI
The Government of Indonesia. (2008). Government Regulation No. 26 about National Spatial Plan.
The Government of West Kalimantan. (n.d.). Geoportal Pemerintah Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. http://geospasial.kalbarprov.go.id/jelajah.html
Tian, H., Liu, Y., Li, Y., Wu, C.H., Chen, B., Kraemer, M.U., Li, B., Cai, J., Xu, B., Yang, Q., Wang, B., Yang, P., Cui, Y., Song, Y., Zheng, P., Wang, Q., Bjornstad, O.N., Yang, R., Grenfell, B.T., … Dye, C. (2020). An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science, 368(6491), 638-642. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb6105 DOI
Tuncer, N., Le, T. (2014). Effect of air travel on the spread of an avian influenza pandemic to the United States. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 7(1), 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcip.2014.02.001 DOI
Valleron, A.J., Cori, A., Valtat, S., Meurisse, S., Carrat, F., Boëlle, P.Y. (2010). Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(19), 8778-8781. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000886107 DOI
Wasserman, S., Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. Cambridge University Press. DOI
Worldometer. (2020). Coronavirus Update Worldwide. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
Worldometer. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Transmission. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/transmission/


Geographia Polonica





Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:


Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:211586 ; 0016-7282 (print) ; 2300-7362 (online) ; 10.7163/GPol.0215


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



Object collections:

Last modified:

Sep 27, 2021

In our library since:

Sep 27, 2021

Number of object content hits:


Number of object content views in PDF format


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in RDFa format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:


Objects Similar



Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information