RCIN and OZwRCIN projects

Object

Title: Three decades of economic changes of rural Slovakia

Subtitle:

Europa XXI 44 (2023)

Publisher:

IGiPZ PAN

Place of publishing:

Warszawa

Description:

29 cm

Abstract:

The economy has been developing exceptionally dynamically in recent decades. In the Central European countries of the former Eastern Bloc, the transformation from a centrally planned to a market economy contributed to these dynamics after 1989. Despite a large number of analyses at the national level or in particular cities, the impact of this development on rural areas has yet to be researched. This study aims to contribute to filling this gap. Its goal is to estimate and assess the development of the number, spatial distribution, and sectoral structure of jobs in the Slovak rural areas over the period 1991-2021. The study uses two approaches to the definition of rural municipalities and explores spatial differentiation of changes. Analysing data on the economically active population and commuting to work, both based on sectoral structure, provides a reliable basis for making qualified estimates regarding the quantity and composition of jobs, even at the local level. The study confirms that municipalities considered rural administratively showed neutral or positive changes in the number of jobs and strong shift from agricultural to diversified rural economy. However, positive changes were mainly driven by suburban areas. When excluding them from consideration, rural municipalities show a rapid decline in the number of jobs and changes in the sectoral structure driven mainly by the decrease in agricultural jobs.

References:

Abrham, J. (2011). Rural development and regional disparities of the new EU Member States. Agricultural Economics, 57(6), 288-296. https://doi.org/10.17221/6/2011-AGRICECON DOI
Alderson, A. S. (2005). Deindustrialization. In J., Beckert & M., Zafirovski (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology (pp. 138-140). London: Routledge.
Baláž, V. (2004). Trendy v regionálnom vývoji Slovenskej republiky: ekonomická teória a prax. Ekonomický časopis/Journal of Economics, 52(7), 783-800.
Bański, J. (2017). The future of rural Poland: the main trends and possible scenarios. Eastern European Countryside, 23(1), 71-102. https://doi.org/10.1515/eec-2017-0004 DOI
Barta, G., Czirfusz, M., & Kukely, G. (2008). Re-industrialization in the World and Hungary. European Spatial Research and Policy, 15(2), 5-27.
Bašovský, O. (1995). Súčasný stav a prognóza urbánnej a regionálnej štruktúry Slovenska a ekonomická transformácia. Sborník České geografické společnosti, 100(2), 78-91.
Beesley, K. B., Millward, H., Ilbery, B., & Harrington, L. (Eds.). (2003). The new countryside: Geographic perspectives on rural change. Halifax, NS: Brandon University and St Mary's University.
Beňová, Z., & Brocková, L. (2022). Factors affecting migration destination choices of international migrant workers in Slovakia. Geographia Cassoviensis, 16(1), 113-129. https://doi.org/10.33542/GC2022-2-03 DOI
Bezák, P., & Mitchley, J. (2014). Drivers of change in mountain farming in Slovakia: from socialist collectivisation to the Common Agricultural Policy. Regional environmental change, 14, 1343-1356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-013-0580-x DOI
Bleha, B., & Buček, J. (2023). Depopulation differences in Slovak former mining cities. The role of geographical conditions and local interventions. Papers in Applied Geography, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/23754931.2023.2255872 DOI
Bleha, B., Vaňo, B., & Bačík, V. (Eds.). (2014). Demographic Atlas of the Slovak Republic. Bratislava: Prírodovedecká fakulta Univerzity Komenského, Inšitút informatiky a štatistiky.
Brambert, P., & Kiniorska, I. (2018). Changes in the Standard of Living in Rural Population of Poland in the Period of the EU Membership. European Countryside, 10(2), 263-279. https://doi.org/10.2478/euco-2018-0016 DOI
Carlin, T. A., & Saupe, W. E. (1993). Structural change in farming and its relationship to rural communities. In A., Hallam (Ed.). Size, structure, and the changing face of American agriculture (pp. 538-560). Bouzlder: Westview Press.
CEDEFOP (2023). Sector employment by occupations. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training. Retrieved from: https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/skills-intelligence/sector-employment-occupations?year=2021&country=SK#2
Chodkowska-Miszczuk, J., Kulla, M., & Novotný, L. (2019). Biogas energy - a chance for agriculture and rural development? Insight from the post-communist Central Europe. DETUROPE - The Central European Journal of Regional Development and Tourism, 11(2), 30-53. https://doi.org/10.32725/det.2019.014 DOI
Copus, A., Hall, C., Barnes, A., Dalton, G., Cook, P., Weingarten, P., Baum, S., Stange, H., Lindner, C., Hill, A., Eiden, G., Mcquaid, R., Grieg, M. & Johansson, M. (2006). Study on Employment in Rural Areas. Aberdeenshire: European Commission Directorate General for Agriculture.
Cupitt, R. T. (1993). The political economy of arms exports in post-communist societies: The cases of Poland and the CSFR. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 26(1), 86-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-067X(93)90021-I DOI
Czarnecki, A., Milczarek-Andrzejewska, D., Widła-Domaradzki, Ł., & Jórasz-Żak, A. (2023). Conflict dynamics over farmland use in the multifunctional countryside. Land Use Policy, 128, 106587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2023.106587 DOI
Dax, T. (1999). The Emergence of New Uses for Rural Spaces and Interrelations of Rural and Urban Labour Markets. In: G., Crampton (Ed.). Regional Unemployment, Job Matching, and Migration. European Research in Regional Science, 9 (pp. 221-234). London: Pion.
De Luca, C., Tondelli, S., & Åberg, H. E. (2020). The Covid-19 pandemic effects in rural areas. TeMA-Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 119-132. https://doi.org/10.6092/1970-9870/6844 DOI
Dijkstra, L. & Poelman, H. (2008). Remote Rural Regions: How Proximity to a City Influences the Performance of Rural Regions. Regional Focus no. 1, EC-DG REGIO.
Druga, M., & Rusinko, A. (2023). Comparison of DEM-derived determinants for modelling of long-term land cover change in a large scale: case studies from Slovak Western Carpathians. Geographia Cassoviensis, 17(1), 21-36. https://doi.org/10.33542/GC2023-1-02 DOI
Dudáš, T., & Grančay, M. (2019). Regional Structure of Foreign Direct Investment in Slovakia - a District-level Gravity-type Model 2009-2016. Ekonomický časopis/Journal of Economics, 67(8), 811-836.
EI (2023). Least developed regions. Bratislava: EI - Employment Institute. Retrieved from https://www.iz.sk/en/project/least-developed-region
EU (2023). The EU Rural Vision. Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from https://rural-vision.europa.eu/rural-vision_en
Eurostat (2023). Which EU regions rely heavily on agriculture? Luxembourg: European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-eurostat-news/w/ddn-20231011-1
Faggian, A., Corcoran, J., & Rowe, F. (2017). Special issue on youth and graduate migration. The Annals of Regional Science, 59(3), 571-575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-017-0845-2 DOI
Forrest, J. (1996). Place of Residence, Place of Work: The spatial clustering of the journey to work in Sydney. Australian Planner, 33(3), 132-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/07293682.1996.9658097 DOI
Frantál, B., & Martinát, S. (2013). New challenges, conflicts and opportunities for rural spaces. In B., Frantal & S., Martinat (Eds.). New rural spaces: Towards renewable energies, multifunctional farming, and sustainable tourism (pp. 6-16). Brno: UGN.
Giannakis, E., & Bruggeman, A. (2020). Regional disparities in economic resilience in the European Union across the urban-rural divide. Regional Studies, 54(9), 1200-1213. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2019.1698720 DOI
Gleaser, E. (2011). Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier. London: Macmillan.
Gonda, P., Potočár, R., & Kazda, R. (2020). Centrálne riadené hospodárstvo bez súkromného vlastníctva. In: P., Gonda & P., Zaj (Eds.). Socializmus: realita namiesto mýtov (pp. 146-164). Bratislava: Konzervatívny inštitút M. R. Štefánika.
Gorzelak, G. (2020). Regional Policies in East-Central Europe. In. M., Fischer & P., Nijkamp (Eds.). Handbook of Regional Science (pp. 1088-1113). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-60723-7 DOI
Grančay, M., & Grančay, N. (2017). Foreign Direct Investment in Slovakia: The Tatra Tiger Gone Tame? In B., Szent-Iványi (Ed.). Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies in Economic Transition (pp. 77-98). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40496-7 DOI
Grodzicki, T., & Jankiewicz, M. (2022). The role of the common agricultural policy in contributing to jobs and growth in EU's rural areas and the impact of employment on shaping rural development: Evidence from the Baltic States. Plos One, 17(2), e0262673. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0262673 DOI
Hadyński, J. (2021). Rural areas as a place for non-agricultural economic activity in a Central and Eastern European context. In J., Hadyński (Ed.). Tourism and Socio-Economic Transformation of Rural Areas (pp. 1-57). London: Routledge. DOI
Halás, M. (2008). Priestorová polarizácia spoločnosti s detailným pohľadom na periférne regióny Slovenska. Sociologický časopis, 44(2), 349-369. DOI
Hegyi-Kéri, A. (2016). A Study of the Process and Types of Deindustrialization in the Visegrád Countries. Club of Economics in Miskolc TMP, 12(2), 5-13. DOI
Holmes, J. (2008). Impulses towards a multifunctional transition in rural Australia: Interpreting regional dynamics in landscapes, lifestyles and livelihoods. Landscape Research, 33(2), 211-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/01426390801912089 DOI
Hruška, V., & Czapiewski, K. (2015). Changing rural economies: theoretical background and empirical evidence. Studia Obszarów Wiejskich, 39, 59-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/SOW.39.5 DOI
Hruška, V., Siviček, T., & Czapiewski, K. (2015). On non-agricultural and non-tourism economic industries in rural areas. Studia Obszarów Wiejskich, 39, 9-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/SOW.39.1 DOI
Ilbery, B., & Bowler, I. (1998). From agricultural productivism to post-productivism. In B., Ilbery (Ed.). The geography of rural change (pp. 57-84). New York: Prentice Hall.
Jacobs, A., I. (2018). Automotive FDI and Dependent Development: The Case of Slovakia's City-Regions in the Bratislava-Zilina Corridor. Open Urban Studies and Demography Journal, 2, 1-19. https://doi/org/10.2174/2352631901602010001 DOI
Kabisch, N., Haase, D., & Haase, A. (2010). Evolving Reurbanisation? Spatio-temporal Dynamics as Exemplified by the East German City of Leipzig. Urban Studies, 47(5), 967-990. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098009353072 DOI
Káposzta, J., & Nagy, H. (2022). The Major Relationships in the Economic Growth of the Rural Space. European Countryside, 14(1), 67-86. https://doi.org/10.2478/euco-2022-0004 DOI
Keeble, D., Owens, P. L., & Thomson, C. (1983). The Urban-Rural Manufacturing Shift in the European Community. Urban studies, 20(4), 405-418. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420988320080771 DOI
Klein, A., Schulze, M.-S. & Vonyó, T. (2017). How Peripheral was the Periphery? Industrialization in East Central Europe since 1870. In. K. H. O'Rourke & J. G. Williamson (Eds.). The Spread of Modern Industry to the Periphery since 1871 (pp. 63-90). Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI
Kooiman, N., Latten, J., & Bontje, M. (2018). Human Capital Migration: A Longitudinal Perspective. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 109(5), 644-660. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/tesg.12324 DOI
Kopačka, L. (1996). Structural Changes of the Economy with Special Reference to Industry. In M., Hampl (Ed.). Geografická organizace společnosti a transformační procesy v České republice (pp. 219-238). Praha: Přírodovědecká fakulta UK.
Kopecká, M., Szatmári, D., & Sviček, M. (2019). Hodnotenie zmien vo využívaní poľnohospodárskej pôdy v okresoch Pezinok a Senec v rokoch 2004-2018. Geografický časopis, 71(2), 121-140. https://doi.org/10.31577/geogrcas.2019.71.2.07 DOI
Korec, P. (1998). Transformation of the Border Transport System in the Vienna-Bratislava-Győr Region. European Planning Studies, 6(5), 599-609. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654319808720483 DOI
Korec, P. (2005). Regionálny rozvoj Slovenska v rokoch rokoch 1989-2004. Bratislava: Geografika.
Korec, P., & Polonyová, E. (2011). Zaostávajúce regióny Slovenska-pokus o identifikáciu a poukázanie na príčiny. Acta Geographica Universitatis Comenianae, 55(2), 165-190.
Korec, P., & Popjáková, D. (2019). Priemysel v Nitre, od parného mlynu Arpád, cez Plastiku, np, k Jaguar Land Rover Slovakia. Acta Geographica Universiatis Comenianae, 63(1), 103-134.
Kospidis, M., & Ivanov, M. (2017). Industrialization and De-industrialization in Southeast Europe, 1870-2010. In K. H., O'Rourke & J. G., Williamson (Eds.). The Spread of Modern Industry to the Periphery since 1871 (pp. 91-114). Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI
Kovács, Z. (2009). Urbanizáció és átalakuló városhálózat Kelet-Közép-Európában. Közép-Európai Közlemények, 2(4-5), 175-182.
Kubeš, J., & Ouředníček, M. (2022). Functional types of suburban settlements around two differently sized Czech cities. Cities, 127, 103742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2022.103742 DOI
Kulla, M. (2010). Transformácia priemyslu na Slovensku po roku 1989. In I., Mezei & D., Barabas (Eds.). Geografické poznatky bez hraníc: výber z maďarských a slovenských príspevkov z fyzickej a humánnej geografie (pp. 218-222). Košice: Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach.
Kulla, M., Novotný, L. & Pregi, L. (2022). The role and perception of biogas in the energy transformation in Slovakia. Geographia Cassoviensis, 16(1), 52-75. https://doi.org/10.33542/GC2022-1-04 DOI
Kunc, J., Martinát, S., Tonev, P., & Frantál, B. (2014): Destiny of Urban Brownfields: Spatial Patterns and Perceived Consequences of Post-Socialistic Deindustrialization. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 41E, 109-128.
Kunc, J., Novotná, M., Tonev, P., Šašinka, P., Raszková, S., Dvořák, Z., & Jetmar, M. (2023). Along the path to metropolitan cooperation via metropolitan unit establishment: Case of Brno Metropolitan Area, Czech Republic. Geographia Cassoviensis, 17(1), 52-72. https://doi.org/10.33542/GC2023-1-04 DOI
Kurek, S., Rachwał, T., & Wójtowicz, M. (2014). Industrial and commercial suburbanization in post-socialist city: the Kraków Metropolitan Area (Poland). Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis Studia Geographica, 5, 55-76.
Lampietti, J., Lugg, D., van der Celen, P., & Branczik, A. (2009). The Changing Face of Rural Space: Agriculture and Rural Development in the Western Balkans. Washington D.C.: World Bank. DOI
Lauko, V., Gurňák, D., & Križan, F. (2010). Vybrané aspekty vzdelanostnej štruktúry obyvateľstva Slovenska v časovo-priestorových súvislostiach. In V., Klimová (Ed.). 13th International Colloquium on Regional Sciences (pp. 134-142). Brno: Masarykova Univerzita.
Lesáková, Ľ. (2008). Vplyv globalizácie na malé a stredné podniky. Ekonomický časopis/Journal of Economics, 56(6), 607-621.
Lovell, S. A., Gray, A., & Boucher, S. E. (2018). Economic marginalization and community capacity: How does industry closure in a small town affect perceptions of place? Journal of Rural Studies, 62, 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.07.002 DOI
Mahon, M. (2007). New populations; shifting expectations: The changing experience of Irish rural space and place. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(3), 345-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.01.006 DOI
Malík, F. (2005). Víno Malých Karpát. Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo PT.
Maryáš, J., Kunc, J., Tonev, P., & Szczyrba, Z. (2014). Shopping and Services Related Travel the Hinterland of Brno: Changes from the Socialist Period to the Present. Moravian Geographical Reports, 22(3), 18-28. https://doi.org/10.2478/mgr-2014-0015 DOI
Michniak, D. (2016). Dochádzka za prácou v regiónoch chudoby na Slovensku v rokoch 2001 a 2011. In A., Michálek & P., Podolák (Eds.). Regióny chudoby na Slovensku (pp. 91-111). Bratislava: Geografický ústav SAV.
Mišúnová, E., & Mišún, J. (2009). Priemysel Slovenska a dopady globálnej krízy: globálna kríza s akcentom na automobilový priemysel. Bratislava: Espirit.
Mládek, J. (1990). Teritoriálne priemyselné útvary Slovenska. Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského.
Mládek, J. (2006). Spatial distribution of natural population decrease. In J., Mládek, D., Kusendová, J., Marenčáková, P., Podolák & B., Vaňo (Eds.). Population atlas of Slovakia (p. 56). Bratislava: Comenius University in Bratislava.
Möllers, J., Buchenrieder, G., & Csáki, C. (Eds.). (2011). Structural change in agriculture and rural livelihoods: Policy implications for the New Member States of the European Union. Studies on the agricultural and food sector in Central and Eastern Europe. Halle: Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO).
Musil, J. (1980). Urbanization in Socialist Countries. International Journal of Sociology, 10(2), 179-185.
Musil, J., & Illner, M. (1994). Development of Prague: long- term trends and scenarios. In M., Barlow, P., Dostál & M., Hampl (Eds.). Development and Administration of Prague (pp. 149-171). Amsterdam: Institut vor Sociale Geographie.
MV SR (2019). Atlas rómskych komunít 2019. Bratislava (Ministerstvo vnútra SR). Retrieved from https://www.minv.sk/?atlas-romskych-komunit-2019.
Nelson, K., Nguyen, T. D., Brownstein, N., Garcia, D., Walker, H., Watson, J., & Xin, A. (2021). Definitions, measures, and uses of rurality: A systematic review of the empirical and quantitative literature. Journal of Rural studies, 82, 351-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.01.035 DOI
Némethová, J., & Jaďuďová, P. (2018). Dopad transformácie poľnohospodárstva a vstupu Slovenska do Európskej únie na štruktúru pracovných síl. Geografické informácie, 22(2), 163-179. https://doi.org/10.17846/GI.2018.22.2.163-179 DOI
Nestorová Dická, J. (2021). Demographic Changes in Slovak Roma Communities in the New Millennium. Sustainability, 13(7), 3735. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073735 DOI
Nestorová Dická, J., Gessert, A., & Sninčák, I. (2019). Rural and non-rural municipalities in the Slovak Republic. Journal of maps, 15(1), 84-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2019.1615010 DOI
Nielsen, T. A. S., & Hovgesen, H. H. (2006). Developments in the relationship between large cities - the suburban zone and the rural/urban hinterland: Analysis of commute patterns around large European and American cities. Warsaw: University of Warsaw.
Novotná, J., & Novotný, L. (2019). Industrial clusters in a post-socialist country: The case of the wine industry in Slovakia. Moravian Geographical Reports, 27(2), 62-78. https://doi.org/10.2478/mgr-2019-0006 DOI
Novotný, L. (2016). Urban development and migration processes in the urban region of Bratislava from the postsocialist transformation until the global economic crisis. Urban geography, 37(7), 1009-1029. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2016.1139413 DOI
Novotný, L. (2019). Impact of Migration on Rural Regions in Post-socialist Slovakia. In J., Bański (Ed.). Three Decades of Transformation in the East-Central European Countryside (pp. 165-189). Cham: Springer. DOI
Novotný, L., Csachová, S., Kulla, M., Nestorová-Dická, J., & Pregi, L. (2016). Development trajectories of small towns in East Slovakia. Europaen Countryside, 8(4), 373-394. https://doi.org/10.1515/euco-2016-0026 DOI
Novotný, L., Hruška, V., Egedy, T., & Mazur, M. (2015). Defining rural areas of Visegrad countries. Studia Obszarów Wiejskich, 39, 21-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/SOW.39.2 DOI
Novotný, L., Kulla., M., Nestorová-Dická, J., & Pregi, L., Csachová, S. (2021). Performance of Small Towns in an Economically Lagging Regions: A Case Study of the Spiš Region, Slovakia. In J., Bański (Ed.). The Routledge Handbook of Small Towns (pp. 159-172). New York: Routledge. DOI
Novotný, L., Pregi, L., & Novotná, J. (2023). East-west or up the urban hierarchy? Internal migration patterns in Slovakia since post-socialist transformation to COVID-19 pandemic. Eurasian Geography and Economics. https://doi.org/10.1080/15387216.2023.2220344 DOI
Podolák, P. (2006). Vnútorná migrácia na Slovensku. In J., Mládek, D., Kusendová, J., Marenčáková, P., Podolák & B. Vaňo (Eds.). Demogeografická analýza Slovenska (pp. 73-77). Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského.
Popjaková, D. (1998). Socioekonomická transformácia. Folia Geographica, 29(1), 317-339.
Pregi, L., & Novotný, L. (2019). Selective migration of population in functional urban regions of Slovakia. Journal of Maps, 15(1), 94-102. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2019.1661880 DOI
Repaská, G., Vilinova, K., & Vojtek, M. (2016). Priestorové rozmiestnenie objektov komerčnej suburbanizácie vo vybraných lokalitách mesta Nitra. In V., Klímova & V., Žítek (Eds.). XIX. mezinárodní kolokvium o regionálních vědách. Sborník příspěvků (pp. 529-536). Brno: Masarykova univerzita. DOI
Ricketts, T. C., Johnson-Webb, K. D., & Taylor, P. (1998). Definisions of Rural. A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.
Rudenko, V., Zayachuk, M., & Rudenko, S, (2022). Geographical developmental specificities of aggregative resource potential of farm economies of Ukraine throughout 2011-2017. Geographia Cassoviensis, 16(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.33542/GC2022-1-01 DOI
Rusnák, J., & Lehocký, F. (2019). Agglomeration economies and technology intensity of industry sector in Slovakia. Politicka ekonomie, 67(4), 426-443. DOI
Schiller, S., Peter, S., & Kühn, S. (2015). Agricultural and Rural Transformation in Europe. Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit.
Silva, L., & Figueiredo, E. (Eds.). (2013). Shaping Rural Areas in Europe. Perceptions and Outcomes on the Present and the Future. Dordrecht: Springer. DOI
Smętkowski, M. (2013). Regional disparities in Central and Eastern European Countries: trends, drivers and prospects. Europe-Asia Studies, 65(8), 1529-1554. https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2013.833038 DOI
SOSR (1991). Results of the 1991 population and housing census. Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR). Retrieved from http://sodb.infostat.sk/sodb/eng/1991/format.htm
SOSR (1994). Dochádzka do zamestnania, škôl a učenia (výsledky sčítania ľudu, domov a bytov 1991). Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR)
SOSR (2001). Results of the 2001 population and housing census. Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR). Retrieved from http://sodb.infostat.sk/sodb/eng/2001/format.htm
SOSR (2001). Dochádzka do zamestnania, škôl a učenia (výsledky sčítania obyvateľov, domov a bytov 2001). Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR).
SOSR (2011). Results of the 2011 population and housing census. Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR). Retrieved from http://census2011.statistics.sk/
SOSR (2011). Dochádzka a odchádzka do zamestnania a školy (výsledky sčítania obyvateľov, domov a bytov 2011). Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR).
SOSR (2021). Results of the 2021 population and housing census. Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR). Retrieved from http:// https://www.scitanie.sk/en
SOSR (2021). Dochádzka a odchádzka do zamestnania a školy (výsledky sčítania obyvateľov, domov a bytov 2021). Bratislava: Statistic Office of Slovak Republic (SOSR).
Šveda, M., & Križan, F. (2011). Zhodnotenie prejavov komerčnej suburbanizácie prostredníctvom zmien v Registri podnikateľských subjektov SR na príklade zázemia Bratislavy. Geographia Cassoviensis, 5(2), 125-132.
Sýkora, L., & Ouředníček, M. (2007). Sprawling post-communist metropolis: Commercial and residential suburbanization in Prague and Brno, the Czech Republic. In E., Razin, M., Dijst & C., Vázquez (Eds.). Employment deconcentration in European metropolitan areas: Market forces versus planning regulations (pp. 209-233). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5762-5_8 DOI
Trading Economics (2023). Slovakia Unemployment Rate. Retrieved from https://tradingeconomics.com/slovakia/unemployment-rate
Trading Economics (2023). Employment in Industry (% of Total Employment) by Country. Retrieved from https://tradingeconomics.com/country-list/employment-in-industry-percent-of-total-employment-wb-data.html
Tregenna, F. (2011). Manufacturing Productivity, Deindustrialization, and Reindustrialization. Working Paper No. 2011/57. Helsinki: United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research. Retrieved from https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/wp2011-057.pdf
Twardzik, M., & Heffner, K. (2019). Small Towns and Rural Areas - as a Prospective Place of Modern Retail Trade Formats in Poland. European Countryside, 11(1), 74-84. https://doi.org/10.2478/euco2019-0005 DOI
Valev, N., Bieri, F., & Bizuneh, M. (2023). Slovakia: Employment in agriculture. Retrieved from https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Slovakia/Employment_in_agriculture/
Williams, A. M., & Baláž, V. (1999). Privatisation in Central Europe: different legacies, methods, and outcomes. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 17(6), 731-751. https://doi.org/10.1068/c170731 DOI
Wilson, G. A. (2001). From productivism to post-productivism… and back again? Exploring the (un) changed natural and mental landscapes of European agriculture. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26(1), 77-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-5661.00007 DOI
Wrzochalska, A. (2014). Rural economies in Central Eastern European Countries after EU enlargement. Warsaw: Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej-Państwowy Instytut Badawczy.
Zborowski, A., Gałka, J., & Surmacz-Wybrańczyk, M. (2023). How are suburbanization and peri-urbanization not the same? Key differences in urban regions in Central and Eastern European countries: the case of cities in southern Poland. Bulletin of Geography, Socio-economic Series, 62, 87-106. https://doi.org/10.12775/bgss-2023-0036 DOI

Relation:

Europa XXI

Volume:

44

Detailed Resource Type:

Article

Format:

application/octet-stream

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:240989 ; 1429-7132 (print) ; 2300-8547 (online) ; 10.7163/Eu21.2023.44.7

Source:

CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link

Language:

eng

Language of abstract:

eng

Rights:

Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure

Access:

Open

Object collections:

Last modified:

Apr 17, 2024

In our library since:

Apr 17, 2024

Number of object content downloads / hits:

57

All available object's versions:

https://www.rcin.org.pl/igipz/publication/277264

Show description in RDF format:

RDF

Show description in RDFa format:

RDFa

Show description in OAI-PMH format:

OAI-PMH

×

Citation

Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information