Object structure

Without a car and overnight stay, can a visit to a regional centre be an unattainable goal in Slovakia?


Europa XXI 44 (2023)


Székely, Vladimír : Autor Affiliation ORCID ; Novotný, Ján : Autor Affiliation ORCID ; Michniak, Daniel : Autor Affiliation ORCID



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



29 cm

Subject and Keywords:

daily accessibility ; potential transport-related social exclusion of inhabitants ; public trans-port-disadvantaged areas ; regional centres ; Slovakia ; daily accessibility ; potential transport-related social exclusion of inhabitants ; public transport-disadvantaged areas ; regional centres ; Slovakia


People need to travel for work, education, shopping, recreation, healthcare and other services.Because not everyone owns or uses a personal vehicle for various reasons, pressure is created to organise public transport as a service of the public interest, which is supposed to eliminate the potential transport-related social exclusion of inhabitants from territories with poor transport accessibility. The subject of the study is an analysis of the daily accessibility by public transport of 8 regional (administrative) centres in Slovakia (Bratislava, Trnava, Trenčín, Nitra, Banská Bystrica, Žilina, Košice, Prešov) from all municipalities of their self-governing regions (during working days and Sundays). We pay attention to regional comparisons of the identified spatial extent of disadvantaged areas by public transport and the quantity of the affected population with the potential risk of their social exclusion also due to the existing state of public transport organisation in individual regions.


Baran, M., & Augustyn, D. J. (2021). The Evaluation of Transport Exclusion in the Peripheral Cross-Border Areas of Central Europe in the Context of Applicability of Information-Based Carpooling. Sustainability, 13, 3440. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063440 DOI
BBSK (2023). Plán dopravnej obslužnosti Banskobystrického samosprávneho kraja (2007/2008). DIC Bratislava, s.r.o. Retrieved from https://www.bbsk.sk/storage/app/media/strategicke-dokumenty/doprava/bbsk-pdo-2008.pdf
Bezák, A. (1997). Priestorová organizácia spoločnosti a územno-správne členenie štátu. Acta Universitatis Matthiae Belii, Geografické Štúdie, 3, 6-13.
Bezák, A. (2001). O regionálnych trhoch práce, nových krajoch a tokoch nezamestnaných (On regional labour markets, new administrative regions and unemployment flows). Geografický časopis, 53(4), 295-305.
Binder, J., & Matern, A. (2020) Mobility and social exclusion in peripheral regions, European Planning Studies, 28(6), 1049-1067. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2019.1689926 DOI
Casas, I. (2007). Social exclusion and the disabled: An accessibility approach. The Professional Geographer, 59(4), 463-477. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9272.2007.00635.x DOI
ŠÚ SR (2011). Výsledky Sčítania obyvateľstva, domov a bytov 2011. Bratislava: Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky.
Charnavalau, A., Szymańska, E. J., & Czapski, G. (2022). The Impact of Transport Exclusion on the Local Development of Biała County. Sustainability, 14, 5674. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095674 DOI
Church, A., Frost, M., & Sullivan, K. (2000). Transport and social exclusion in London. Transport Policy, 7(3), 195-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-070X(00)00024-X DOI
Combs, T. S., Shay, E., Salvesen, D., Kolosna, C., & Madeley, M. (2016). Understanding the multiple dimensions of transportation disadvantage: The case of rural North Carolina. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 4(2), 68-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2016.02.004 DOI
CP (2019). Timetables. Retrieved from www.cp.hnonline.sk
Currie, G., Richardson, T., Smyth, P., Vella-Brodrick, D., Hine, J., Lucas, K., Stanley, J., Morris, J. Kinnear, R., & Stanley, J. (2009). Investigating links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being in Melbourne - preliminary results. Transport Policy, 16(3), 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.02.002 DOI
Currie, G., Richardson, T., Smyth, P., Vella-Brodrick, D., Hine, J., Lucas, K., Stanley, J., Morris, J., Kinnear, R., & Stanley, J. (2010). Investigating links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being in Melbourne - updated results. Research in Transportation Economics, 29(1), 287-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2010.07.036 DOI
Davison, L., Enoch, M., Ryley, T., Quddus, M., & Wang, C. (2014). A survey of demand responsive transport in Great Britain. Transport Policy, 31(1), 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.11.004 DOI
Delbosc, A., & Currie, G. (2011). The spatial context of transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1130-1137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.04.005 DOI
Engels, B., & Liu, G-J. (2011). Social exclusion, location and transport disadvantage amongst non-driving seniors in a Melbourne municipality, Australia. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(4), 984-996. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.03.007 DOI
Farrington, J., & Farrington, C. (2005). Rural accessibility, social inclusion and social justice: towards conceptualisation. Journal of Transport Geography, 13(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2004.10.002 DOI
Gašparović, S. (2016). Theoretical Postulates of Transport Disadvantage. Hrvatski Geografski Glasnik, 78(1), 73−95. DOI
Givoni, M., & Rietveld, P. (2007). The access journey to the railway station and its role in passengers' satisfaction with rail travel. Transport Policy, 14(5), 357-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2007.04.004 DOI
Goliszek, S. (2022). Private car transport or public transport? The study of daily accessibility in Szczecin. Geografický časopis, 74(4), 337-356. https://doi.org/10.31577/geogrcas.2022.74.4.17 DOI
Gutiérrez, J. (2001). Location, economic potential and daily accessibility: an analysis of the accessibility impact of the high-speed line Madrid-Barcelona-French border. Journal of Transport Geography, 9(4), 229-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6923(01)00017-5 DOI
Halás, M., & Klapka, P. (2017). Functionality versus gerrymandering and nationalism in administrative geography: lessons from Slovakia. Regional Studies, 51(10), 1568-1579. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2016.1215602 DOI
Halás, M., Klapka, P., Bačík, V., & Klobučník, M. (2017). The spatial equity principle in the administrative division of the Central European countries. PLoS ONE, 12(11), e0187406. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187406 DOI
Hernandez, D. O., & Titheridge, H. (2016). Mobilities of the periphery: Informality, access and social exclusion in the urban fringe in Colombia. Journal of Transport Geography, 55, 152-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.12.004 DOI
Hine, J., & Mitchell, F. (2001). Better for Everyone? Travel Experiences and Transport Exclusion. Urban Studies, 38(2), 319-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980020018619 DOI
Horňák, M., & Rochovská, A. (2014). Do mesta čoraz ďalej - dopravné vylúčenie obyvateľov vidieckych obcí Gemera (Further into the Town - Transport Exclusion of Rural Settlements Residents in the Gemer Region). Geographia Cassoviensis, 8(2), 141-149.
Horňák, M., Kresáň, L., & Rochovská, A. (2016). Osobný automobil v domácnosti: symbol sociálneho statusu alebo nevyhnutnosť? Geografia, 24(1), 15-19.
Jaroš, V. (2017). Social and transport exclusion. Geographia Polonica, 90(3), 247-263. https://doi.org//10.7163/GPol.0099 DOI
Kenyon, S. (2011). Transport and social exclusion: access to higher education in the UK policy context. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(4), 763-771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.09.005 DOI
Kenyon, S., Lyons, G., & Rafferty, J. (2002). Transport and social exclusion: investigating the possibility of promoting inclusion through virtual mobility. Journal of Transport Geography, 10(3), 207-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6923(02)00012-1 DOI
Lucas, K. (2012). Transport and social exclusion: Where are we now? Transport Policy, 20, 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.01.013 DOI
Lucas, K. (2019). A new evolution for transport-related social exclusion research? Journal of Transport Geography, 81, 102529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.102529 DOI
Ma, L., Kent, J. L., & Mulley, C. (2018). Transport disadvantage, social exclusion, and subjective well-being: The role of the neighborhood environment - evidence from Sydney, Australia. The Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 31-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2018.1008 DOI
Mackett, R., & Thoreau, R. (2015). Transport, social exclusion and health. Journal of Transport & Health, 2(4), 610-617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2015.07.006 DOI
McDonagh, J. (2006). Transport policy instruments and transport-related social exclusion in rural Republic of Ireland. Journal of Transport Geography, 14(5), 355-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2005.06.005 DOI
Michniak, D. (2003). Dostupnosť okresných miest na Slovensku. Geografický časopis, 55(1), 21-39.
MINDOP SR (2023). Dopravné prevádzkové ukazovatele podľa regiónov. Ministerstvo Dopravy Slovenskej Republiky. Retrieved from https://www.mindop.sk/files/statistika_vud/reg_prev_ukazovatele.htm#k10
Preston, J., & Rajé, F. (2007). Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(3), 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2006.05.002 DOI
Rosik, P., & Stępniak, M. (2015). Monitoring of changes in road potential accessibility at municipality level in Poland, 1995-2015. Geographia Polonica, 88(4), 607-620. http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0036 DOI
Rosik, P., Pomianowski, W., Goliszek, S., Stępniak, M., Kowalczyk, K., Guzik, R., Kołoś, A., & Komornicki, T. (2017). Multimodalna dostępność transportem publicznym gmin w Polsce (Multimodal public transport accessibility of Polish gminas/municipalities (MULTIMODACC)). Warsaw: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN.
Schwanen, T., Lucas, K., Akyelken, N., Solsona, D. C., Carrasco, J-A., & Neutens, T. (2015). Rethinking the links between social exclusion and transport disadvantage through the lens of social capital. Transportation Research Part A, 74, 123-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2015.02.012 DOI
Shergold, I., & Parkhurst, G. (2012). Transport-related social exclusion amongst older people in rural Southwest England and Wales. Journal of Rural Studies, 28(4), 412-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2012.01.010 DOI
Stanley, J., & Lucas, K. (2008). Social exclusion: What can public transport offer? Research in Transportation Economics, 22(1), 36-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2008.05.009 DOI
STATDAT (2023). Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky. Retrieved from http://statdat.statistics.sk
Székely, V., & Novotný, J. (2020). Accessibility of regional centre in the light of the number of used public transport lines: transport-disadvantaged rural areas from central Slovakia. Rural Areas and Development, 17, 55-69. https://doi.org/10.30858/RAD/2020/17.0400
Székely, V., & Novotný, J. (2022). Public transport-disadvantaged rural areas in relation to daily accessibility of regional centre: Case study from Slovakia. Journal of Rural Studies, 92, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2022.03.015 DOI
Śleszyński, P. (2016). A synthetic index of the spatio-temporal accessibility of communes in Poland. Geographia Polonica, 89(4), 567-574. http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0074 DOI
Trembošová, M., & Kohutiar, S. (2021). The impact of transport on regional development in the Trnava self-governing region. Prace Komisji Geografii Komunikacji PTG, 25(2), 18-26. http://doi.org/10.4467/2543859XPKG.22.007.16265 DOI
Vale, D. S. (2013). Does commuting time tolerance impede sustainable urban mobility? Analysing the impacts on commuting behaviour as a result of workplace relocation to a mixed-use centre in Lisbon. Journal of Transport Geography, 32, 38-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.08.003 DOI
van Dülmen, C., Šimon, M., & Klärner, A. (2022). Transport poverty meets car dependency: A GPS tracking study of socially disadvantaged groups in European rural peripheries. Journal of Transport Geography, 101, 103351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2022.103351 DOI
Votrubová, K. (2022, July 27). Reportáž z vidieka - Slovenské dediny postupne vymierajú a zvrat je už, zdá sa, nemožný. Postoj. Retrieved from https://www.postoj.sk/111007/slovenske-dediny-postupne-vymieraju-a-zvrat-je-uz-zda-sa-nemozny
Wendt, J. (2000). Dostępność komunikacyjna ośrodków władzy wojewódzkiej. Prace Komisji Geografii Komunikacji PTG, 6, 183-203.
Więckowski, M., Michniak, D., Bednarek-Szczepańska, M., Chrenka, B., Ira, V., Komornicki, T., Rosik, P., Stępniak, M., Székely, V., Sleszyński, P., Świątek, D., & Wiśniewski, R. (2014). Road accessibility to tourist destinations of the Polish-Slovak borderland: 2010-2030 prediction and planning. Geographia Polonica, 87(1), 5-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.1 DOI
Zuo, T., Wei, H., Chen, N., & Zhang, C. (2020). First-and-last mile solution via bicycling to improving transit accessibility and advancing transportation equity. Cities, 99, 102614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102614 DOI


Europa XXI



Resource type:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

1429-7132 (print) ; 2300-8547 (online) ; 10.7163/Eu21.2023.44.4


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure





Citation style: