RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: Uncovering regional typologies in Europe in terms of interregional remittances flows


Europa XXI 43 (2022)



Place of publishing:



29 cm


Information regarding remittances flows across European space is scarce, and available only at the national level. Such a scarcity limits the capacity to undertake the required analyses and to derive the corresponding conclusions on the interrelations among European regions. The paper uncovers regional typologies in Europe in terms of interregional (NUTS 2 level) remittances flows in year 2018, the year prior to the eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the paper compiles and utilizes O-D matrices for interregional remittances flows in Europe, compiles and utilizes tailor-made clustering indicators and employs the k-means clustering technique.


Agarwal, R., & Horowitz, A. W. (2002). Are international remittances altruism or insurance? Evidence from Guyana using multiple-migrant households. World Development, 30, 2033-2044. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00118-3 DOI
Antoniades, A., Seshan, G., Weber, R., & Zubrickas, R. (2017). Does altruism matter for remittances? Oxford Economic Papers, 70(1), 225-242. https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpx035 DOI
Azizi, S. (2017). Altruism: Primary motivation of remittances. Applied Economics Letters, 24(17), 1218-1221. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2016.1267840 DOI
Azizi, S. (2019). Why do migrants remit? World Economy, 42(2), 429-452. https://doi.org/10.1111/twec.12681 DOI
Bauer, T. K.. & Sinning, M. G. (2011). The savings behavior of temporary and permanent migrants in Germany. Journal of Population Economics, 24, 421-449. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-010-0306-z DOI
Bouhga-Hagbe, J. (2006). Altruism and workers' remittances: Evidence from selected countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. IMF Working Papers, 06(130). DOI
Breunig, M. M., Kriegel, H. P., Ng, R. T., & Sander, J. (2000). LOF: Identifying density-based local outliers. ACM SIGMOD Record, 29(2), 93-104. https://doi.org/10.1145/335191.335388 DOI
Brülhart, M., Crozet, M., & Koenig, P. (2004). Enlargement and EU periphery: The impact of changing market potential. World Economy, 27(6), 853-875. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2004.00632.x DOI
Bunduchi, E., Vasile, V., Comes, C.-A., & Stefan, D. (2019). Macroeconomics determinants of remittances: Evidence from Romania. Applied Economics, 51(35), 3876-3889. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2019.1584386 DOI
Carling, J. (2008). The determinants of migrant remittances. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 24(3), 581-598. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grn022 DOI
Castells, M. (2000). Space of flows, space of places: Materials for a theory of urbanism in the information age. In R.T., LeGates & F., Stout (Eds.). The city reader (pp. 240-251). London: Routledge. DOI
Clemens, M. A., & McKenzie, D. (2018). Why don't remittances appear to affect growth? Economic Journal, 128(612), 62-70. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12463 DOI
Crescenzi, R., Pietrobelli, C., & Rabelloti, R. (2014). Innovation drivers, value chains and the geography of multinational corporations in Europe. Journal of Economic Geography, 14(6), 1053-1086. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbt018 DOI
Davies, D. L., & Bouldin, D. W. (1979). A cluster separation measure. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. PAMI-1, 2, 224-227. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.1979.4766909 DOI
Eurostat (2022). Balance of Payments. Eurostat. Retrieved from https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=bop_rem6&lang=en
Freund, C., & Spatafora, N. (2008). Remittances, transaction costs, and informality. Journal of Development Economics, 86(2), 356-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.09.002 DOI
Gapen, M. T., Chami, R., Montiel, P. J., Barajas, A., & Fullenkamp, C. (2009). Do workers' remittances promote economic growth? IMF Working Paper, 09(153). DOI
Gertler, M. S. (2003). Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context, or The undefinable tacitness of being (there). Journal of Economic Geography, 3(1), 75-99. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/3.1.75 DOI
Ghosh, B. (2006). Migrants' remittances and development: Myths, rhetoric and realities. Geneva & Den Haag: International Organization for Migration & The Hague Process on Refugees and Migration.
Giuliano, P., & Ruiz-Arranz, M. (2009). Remittances, financial development, and growth. Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2008.10.005 DOI
Glytsos, N. P. (2005). The contribution off remittances to growth. Journal of Economic Studies, 32(6), 468-496. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443580510631379 DOI
Gupta, S., Pattillo, C. A., & Wagh, S. (2009). Effect of remittances on poverty and financial development in Sub-Sharan Africa. World Development, 37(1), 104-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.05.007 DOI
Hagen-Zanker, J., & Siegel, M. (2007). The determinants of remittances: A review of the literature. Maastricht Graduate School of Governance Working Paper, 07(003). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1095719 DOI
Hunt, J. (2006). Staunching emigration from East Germany: Age and the determinants of migration. Journal of the European Economic Association, 4(5), 1014-1037. https://doi.org/10.1162/JEEA.2006.4.5.1014 DOI
IMF (2009). Balance of Payments and International Investment Position manual (6th ed.). Washington: IMF.
Kallioras, D., & Petrakos, G. (2010). Industrial growth, economic integration and structural change: Evidence from the EU new member-states regions. Annals of Regional Science, 45, 667-680. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-009-0296-5 DOI
Kallioras, D., Topaloglou, L., & Venieris, S. (2009). Tracing the determinants of economic cross-border interaction in the European Union. Spatium, 21, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.2298/SPAT0921001K DOI
Karanika, M., & Kallioras, D. (2018). EU spatiality under question - Territorial cooperation in danger. Territories, 1(1), 59-72. https://doi.org/10.5070/T21141511 DOI
Kemeny, T. (2011). Are international technology gaps growing or shrinking in the age of globalization? Journal of Economic Geography, 11(1), 1-35. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbp062 DOI
Lucas, R. E., & Stark, O. (1985). Motivations to remit: Evidence from Botswana. Journal of Political Economy, 93(5), 901-918. https://doi.org/10.1086/261341 DOI
Mayda, A. M. (2010). International migration: A panel data analysis of the determinants of bilateral flows. Journal of Population Economics, 23(4), 1249-1274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-009-0251-x DOI
McCann, P. (2008). Globalization and economic geography: The world is curved, not flat. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 1(3), 351-370. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsn002 DOI
Merkle, L., & Zimmermann, K. F. (1992). Savings, remittances, and return migration. Economics Letters, 38, 129-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1765(92)90165-U DOI
Perez-Saiz, H., Dridi, M. J., Gursoy, T., & Bari, M. (2019). The impact of remittances on economic activity: The importance of sectoral linkages. IMF Working Papers, 19(175). DOI
Petrakos, G., & Kallioras, D. (2007). Integration and structural change: Pre-accession experience in the regions of the EU new member-states. In P., Getimis & G., Kafkalas (Eds.). Overcoming fragmentation in Southeast Europe: Spatial development trends and integration potential (pp. 269-294). London: Routledge.
Petrakos, G., & Topaloglou, L. (2008). Economic geography and European integration: The effects on the EU external border regions. International Journal for Public Policy, 3(3/4), 146-162. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPP.2008.019064 DOI
Petrakos, G., Kallioras, D., & Anagnostou, A. (2011). Regional convergence and growth in Europe: Understanding patterns and determinants. Euro DOI
Petrakos, G., Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Rovolis, A. (2005). Growth, integration and regional inequalities in Europe. Environment and Planning A, 37(10), 1837-1855. https://doi.org/10.1068/a37348 DOI
Rao, B. B., & Hassan, G. M. (2011). A panel data analysis of the growth effects of remittances. Economic Modelling, 28(1), 701-709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2010.05.011 DOI
Ratha, D. & Shaw, S. (2007). South-south migration and remittances. WB Working Papers, 102. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7072-8 DOI
Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Crescenzi, R. (2008). Mountains in a flat world: why proximity still matters for the location of economic activity. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 1(3), 371-388. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsn011 DOI
Rogerson, P. (2001). Statistical methods for geography. London: Sage. DOI
Scott, A., Agnew, J., Soja, E., & Storper, M. (2001). Global city-regions. In A., Scott (Ed.). Global city-regions: Trends, theory, policy (pp. 11-32). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sinning, M. G. (2011). Determinants of savings and remittances: Empirical evidence from immigrants to Germany. Review of Economics of the Household, 9, 45-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11150-009-9082-5 DOI
Topaloglou, L., Kallioras, D., Manetos, P., & Petrakos, G. (2005). A border regions typology in the enlarged European Union. Journal of Borderlands Studies, 20(2), 67-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2005.9695644 DOI
WB (2022). Migration Remittances Data. World Bank. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/migrationremittancesdiasporaissues/brief/migration-remittances-data
Yoshino, N., Taghizadeh-Hesary, F., & Otsuka, M. (2018). International remittances and poverty reduction: Evidence from developing Asia. Journal of Comparative Asian Development, 17(2), 21-42.


Europa XXI



Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:238530 ; doi:10.7163/Eu21.2022.43.3 ; 1429-7132 (print) ; 2300-8547 (online) ; 10.7163/Eu21.2022.43.3


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure



Object collections:

Last modified:

Dec 18, 2023

In our library since:

May 23, 2023

Number of object content downloads / hits:


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in RDFa format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:


Objects Similar



Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information