Title: Wpływ gospodarki leśnej na terenach górskich na wybrane elementy środowiska – aktualny stan wiedzy = Impact of mountain forest management on selected elements of the environment – the current state of knowledge


Affek, Andrzej : Autor ORCID

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Przegląd Geograficzny T. 91 z. 1 (2019)



Place of publishing:



24 cm


This work should acquaint Polish readers with the current state of knowledge on the impact of that the management of mountain forests exerts on soil and on the circulation of water and matter, including via such phenomena as erosion, sediment transport and flooding. It draws abundantly on foreign review papers on specific issues, at the same time augmenting the theses formulated with findings from most recent works and relating to Polish conditions. This literature review has provided a basis for it to be concluded that: 1) forest management, and above all the associated roads and skid trails, accelerate both water erosion and landslide processes in mountainous areas; 2) the movement of matter along forest roads (by both of the above mechanisms) is usually one to more than two orders of magnitude greater than that occurring on steep forested slopes; 3) unpaved forest roads, skid trails and wood-storage areas are the main sources of sediment in forest areas, while paved roads contribute to accelerated surface runoff; 4) the type and location of roads in mountain forest have a significant impact on the intensity of water erosion and landslides processes, as well as peak flows and resulting flood risk in lower locations; 5) roads and skid trails leading along the slope gradient and directly crossing roads and streams intensify further both erosion and the deposition of sediments into streams; 6) the network of forest roads may contribute by up to several percent to increases in peak flows, as well as the resulting flash floods; 7) in the years immediately following clear-cutting, a two- to four-fold increase in the frequency of large flooding events is to be anticipated; 8) annual streamflow usually increases significantly where at least 20% of the tree basal area in a forest is removed; 9) the return of the hydrological system to its pre-harvest state is extremely slow (lasting up to 80 years); 10) there has recently been no universal confirmation of previously demonstrated associations between streamflow increase in mountain catchments and reductions in plant cover.


1. Adams P., Froehlich H., 1981, Compaction of Forest Soils, PNW, 217, A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, Oregon, Washington, Idaho.
2. Affek A., Zachwatowicz M., Sosnowska A., Gerlée A., Kiszka K., 2017, Impacts of modern mechanised skidding on the natural and cultural heritage of the Polish Carpathian Mountains, Forest Ecology and Management, 405, s. 391–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.09.047
3. Agherkakli B., Najafi A., Sadeghi S., 2010, Ground based operation effects on soil disturbance by steel tracked skidder in a steep slope of forest, Journal of Forest Science, 56, s. 278–284. https://doi.org/10.17221/93/2009-JFS
4. Akbarimehr M., Jalilvand H., 2013, Considering the relationship of slope and soil loss on skid trails in the north of Iran (a case study), Journal of Forest Science, 59, s. 339–344. https://doi.org/10.17221/34/2013-JFS
5. Alila Y., Kuraś P.K., Schnorbus M., Hudson R., 2009, Forests and floods: A new paradigm sheds light on age-old controversies, Water Resources Research, 45, s. 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007207
6. Allison C., Sidle R.C., Tait D., 2004, Application of decision analysis forest road deactivation in unstable terrain, Environmental Management, 33, s. 173–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-0142-y
7. Amaranthus M.P., Rice R.M., Barr N.R., Ziemer R.R., 1985, Logging and forest roads related to increased debris slides in southwestern Oregon, Journal of Forestry, 83, s. 229–233.
8. Ampoorter E., Van Nevel L., De Vos B., Hermy M., Verheyen K., 2010, Assessing the effects of initial soil characteristics, machine mass and traffic intensity on forest soil compaction, Forest Ecology and Management, 260, s. 1664–1676. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.08.002
9. Anderson H.W., Hoover M.D., Reinhart K.G., 1976, Forests and water: Effect of forest management on floods, sedimentation, and water supply. General Technical Report PSW-18/1976, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC.
10. Andréassian V., 2004, Waters and forests: From historical controversy to scientific debate, Journal of Hydrology, 291, s. 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.12.015
11. Ares A., Terry T., Miller R., Anderson H., Flaming B., 2005, Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69, s. 1822–1832. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2004.0331
12. Baharuddin K., Mokhtaruddin A.M., Nik Muhamad M., 1995, Surface runoff and soil loss from a skid trail and a logging road in a tropical forest, Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 7, s. 558–569.
13. Ballard T.M., 2000, Impacts of forest management on northern forest soils, Forest Ecology and Management, 133, s. 37–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00296-0
14. Beschta R.L., 1978, Long-term patterns of sediment production following road construction and logging in the Oregon Coast Range, Water Resources Research, 14, 6, s. 1011–1016. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR014i006p01011
15. Beschta R.L., Pyles M.R., Skaugset A.E., Surfleet C.G., 2000, Peakflow responses to forest practices in the Western Cascades of Oregon, USA, Journal of Hydrology, 233, 1–4, s. 102–112.
16. Biederman J.A., Somor A.J., Harpold A.A., Gutmann E.D., Breshears D.D., Troch P.A., Gochis D.J., Scott R.L., Meddens A.J.H., Brooks P.D., 2015, Recent tree die-off has little effect on streamflow in contrast to expected increases from historical studies, Water Resources Research, 51, s. 9775–9789. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017401
17. Bilby R.E., Sullivan K., Duncan S.H., 1989, The generation and fate of road-surface sediment in forested watersheds in southwestern Washington, Forest Science, 35, 2, s. 453–468.
18. Bishop D.M., Stevens M.E., 1964, Landslides on logged areas, southeast Alaska. Northern Forest Experiment Station Research Paper NOR-1, USDA Forest Service, Juneau, Alaska.
19. Bodelier P., Libochant J.A., Blom C., Laanbroek H., 1996, Dynamics of nitrification and denitrification in root-oxygenated sediments and adaptation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to low-oxygen or anoxic habitats, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 11, s. 4100–4107.
20. Bosch J.M., Hewlett J.D., 1982, A Review of Catchment Experiments to Determine the Effect of the Vegetation Changes on Water Yield and Evapotranspiration, Journal of Hydrology, 55, s. 3–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(82)90117-2
21. Bowling L.C., Lettenmaier D.P., 1997, Evaluation of the effects of forest roads on streamflow in Hard and Ware Creeks, Washington. Water Resources Series Technical Report No. 155, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
22. Brown A.E., Zhang L., McMahon T.A., Western A.W., Vertessy R.A., 2005, A review of paired catchment studies for determining changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation, Journal of Hydrology, 310, s. 28–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.12.010
23. Brown G.W., Krygier J.T., 1971, Clear-cut logging and sediment production in the Oregon Coast Range, Water Resources Research, 7, 5, s. 1189–1198. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR007i005p01189
24. Bryndal T., 2014, Identyfikacja małych zlewni podatnych na formowanie gwałtownych wezbrań w Karpatach Polskich, Prace Monograficzne, 690, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UP, Kraków.
25. Bucała-Hrabia A., 2018, The role of unmetalled roads as a sediment source in the fluvial systems of the Polish Flysch Carpathians, human impacts on erosion and sedimentation, Geographia Polonica, 91, 2, s.171–196. https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0116
26. Burroughs E.R., 1984, Survey of slope stability problems on forest lands in the west, [w:] Proceedings of a Workshop on Slope Stability: Problems and Solutions in Forest Management. General Technical Report PNW-180, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, s. 5–16.
27. Butzen V., Seeger M., Wirtz S., Huemann M., Mueller C., Casper M., Ries J.B., 2014, Quantification of Hortonian overland flow generation and soil erosion in a Central European low mountain range using rainfall experiments, Catena, 113, s. 202–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.07.008
28. Cambi M., Certini G., Neri F., Marchi E., 2015, The impact of heavy traffic on forest soils: A review, Forest Ecology and Management, 338, s. 124–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.11.022
29. Chappell N.A., Douglas I., Hanapi J.M., Tych W., 2004, Sources of suspended sediment within a tropical catchment recovering from selective logging, Hydrological Processes, 18, s. 685–710. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1263
30. Clausen J.C., Spooner J., 1993, Paired watershed study design, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.
31. Croke J., Hairsine P., Fogarty P., 2001, Soil recovery from track construction and harvesting changes in surface infiltration, erosion and delivery rates with time, Forest Ecology and Management, 143, s. 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00500-4
32. Dominati E., Patterson M., Mackay A., 2010, A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils, Ecological Economics, 69, s. 1858–1868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.05.002
33. Douglas I., Bidin K., Balamurugan G., Chappell N.A., Walsh R.P.D., Greer T., Sinun W., 1999, The role of extreme events in the impacts of selective tropical forestry on erosion during harvesting and recovery phases at Danum Valley, Sabah, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 354, s. 1749–1761. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1999.0518
34. Elliot W.J., Page-Dumroese D., Robichaud P.R., 1999, The Effects of Forest Management on Erosion and Soil Productivity. Proceedings of the Symposium on Soil Quality and Erosion Interaction, Keystone, CO, July 7, 1996, Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeney, IA.
35. Endo T., Tsuruta T., 1969, The effect of the tree's roots on the shear strength of soil. Annual Report, Hokkaido Branch Forest Experiment Station, Sapporo, s. 167–182.
36. Ezzati S., Najafi A., Rab M.A., Zenner E.K., 2012, Recovery of soil bulk density, porosity and rutting from ground skidding over a 20-year period after timber harvesting in Iran, Silva Fennica, 46, s. 521–538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.908
37. Fahey B.D., Coker R.J., 1989, Forest road erosion in the granite terrain of Southwest Nelson, New Zealand, Journal of Hydrology, 28, 2, s. 123–141.
38. Foltz R.B., Burroughs E.R., 1990, Sediment Production from Forest Roads with Wheel Ruts, [w:] Watershed Planning and Analysis in Action Symposium, Proceedings of IR Conference Watershed Mgt/IR Div/ASCE Durango, CO, 9–11.06.1990, s. 266–275.
39. Fredriksen R.L., 1970, Erosion and sedimentation following road construction and timber harvest on unstable soils in three small western Oregon watersheds. Research Paper PNW-104, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR, U.S.
40. Frey B., Rüdt A., Sciacca S., Matthies D., 2009, Compaction of forest soils with heavy logging machinery affects soil bacterial community structure, European Journal of Soil Biology, 45, s. 312–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2009.05.006
41. Froehlich H., 1979, Soil compaction from logging equipment: effects on growth of young ponderosa pine, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 34, s. 276–278.
42. Froehlich H., Miles D., Robbins R., 1985, Soil bulk density recovery on compacted skid trails in central Idaho, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49, s. 1015–1017. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1985.03615995004900040045x
43. Froehlich W., 1975, Dynamika transportu fluwialnego Kamienicy Nawojowskiej, Prace Geograficzne, 114, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
44. Froehlich W., 1982, Mechanizm transportu fluwialnego i dostawy zwietrzelin do koryta w górskiej zlewni fliszowej, Prace Geograficzne, 143, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
45. Froehlich W., Słupik J., 1986, Rola dróg w kształtowaniu spływu i erozji w karpackich zlewniach fliszowych, Przegląd Geograficzny, 58, 1–2, s. 67–87.
46. Froehlich W., Walling D.E., 1997, The role of unmetalled roads as a sediment source in the fluvial systems of the Polish Flysch Carpathians, [w:] D.E. Walling, J.L. Probst (red.), Human Impact on Erosion and Sedimentation, IAHS Proceedings & Reports, 245, s. 159–168.
47. Gerlach T., 1976, Współczesny rozwój stoków w polskich Karpatach fliszowych, Prace Geograficzne, 122, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
48. Giannetti F., Chirici G., Travaglini D., Bottalico F., Marchi E., Cambi M., 2017, Assessment of soil disturbance caused by forest operations by means of portable laser scanner and soil physical parameters, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 81, 6, s. 1577–1585. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2017.02.0051
49. Grace J.M., Skaggs R.W., Cassel D.K., 2006, Soil physical changes associated with forest harvesting operations on an organic soil, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, s. 503–509. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0154
50. Gray D.H., Megahan W.F., 1981, Forest vegetation removal and slope stability in the Idaho Batholith, USDA Forest Service, Ogden, UT. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.68699
51. Greacen E.L., Sands R., 1980, Compaction of forest soils. A review, Australian Journal of Soil Research, 18, s. 163–189. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9800163
52. Green K., Alila Y., 2012, A paradigm shift in understanding and quantifying the effects of forest harvesting on floods in snow environments, Water Resources Research, 48, W10503. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012WR012449
53. Hartanto H., Prabhu R., Widayat A.S.E., Asdak C., 2003, Factors affecting runoff and soil erosion: plot-level soil loss monitoring for assessing sustainability of forest management, Forest Ecology and Management, 180, s. 361–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00656-4
54. Hartmann M., Niklaus P., Zimmermann S., Schmutz S., Kremer J., Abarenkov K., Lüscher P., Widmer F., Frey B., 2014, Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction, ISME Journal, 8, s. 226–244. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2013.141
55. Haydon S.R., Jayasuriya M.D.A., O'Shaughnessy P.J., 1991, The effect of vehicle use and road maintenance on erosion from unsealed roads in forests: the road 11 experiment, Melbourne Water, Melbourne, Victoria.
56. Heinimann H., 2007, Forest operations engineering and management – the ways behind and ahead of a scientific discipline, Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 28, s. 107–121.
57. Helms J.A., Hipkin C., 1986, Effects of soil compaction on tree volume in a California ponderosa pine plantation, Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 1, s. 121–124.
58. Horn R., Vossbrink J., Peth S., Becker S., 2007, Impact of modern forest vehicles on soil physical properties, Forest Ecology and Management, 248, s. 56–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.02.037
59. Hoyt W.G., Troxell H.C., 1932, Forests and streamflow, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 58, s. 1037–1066.
60. Jakob M., 2000, The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia, Catena, 38, 4, s. 279–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(99)00078-8
61. Jansson K., Johansson J., 1998, Soil changes after traffic with a tracked and a wheeled forest machine: a case study on a silt loam in Sweden, Forestry, 71, s. 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/71.1.57
62. Johnson M.G., Beschta R.L., 1980, Logging, infiltration capacity, and surface erodibility in western Oregon, Journal of Forestry, 78, s. 334–337.
63. Jones J., Grant G.E., 1996, Peak flow responses to clear cutting and roads in small and large basins, western Cascades, Oregon, Water Resources Research, 32, s. 959–974. https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR03493
64. Kijowska-Strugała M., 2015, Transport zawiesiny w warunkach zmieniającej się antropopresji w zlewni Bystrzanki (Karpaty fliszowe), Prace Geograficzne, 247, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
65. Kijowska-Strugała M., Bucała-Hrabia A., Demczuk P., 2018, Long‐term impact of land use changes on soil erosion in an agricultural catchment (in the Western Polish Carpathians), Land Degradation and Development, 29, 6, s. 1871–1884. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2936
66. Kochenderfer J.N., Helvey J.D., 1987, Using gravel to reduce soil losses from minimum-standard forest roads, Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 42, s. 46–50.
67. Kozlowski T.T., 1999, Soil compaction and growth of woody plants, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 14, s. 596–619. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827589908540825
68. Krieger J.D., 2001, Economic Value of Forest Ecosystem Services: A Review, The Wilderness Society, Washington DC.
69. Kroczak R., 2010, Geomorfologiczne i hydrologiczne skutki funkcjonowania dróg polnych na Pogórzu Ciężkowickim, Prace Geograficzne, 225, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
70. Kuraś P.K., Alila Y., Weiler M., 2012, Forest harvesting effects on the magnitude and frequency of peak flows can increase with return period, Water Resources Research, 48, s. 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR010705
71. La Marche J.L., Lettenmaier D.P., 2001, Effects of forest roads on flood flows in the Deschutes River, Washington, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 26, s. 115–134. https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200102)26:2<115::AID-ESP166>3.0.CO;2-O
72. LaHusen R.G., 1984, Characteristics of management-related debris flows, northwestern California, [w:] C.L. O'Loughlin, A.J. Pearce (red.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability, East–West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, s. 139–145.
73. Larsen M.C., Parks J.E., 1997, How wide is a road? The association of roads and mass-wasting in a forested montaine environment, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 22, s. 835–848. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199709)22:9<835::AID-ESP782>3.0.CO;2-C
74. Malmer A., 1996a, Hydrological effects and nutrient losses of forest plantation establishment on tropical rainforest land in Sabah, Malaysia, Journal of Hydrology, 174, s. 129–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02757-2
75. Malmer A., 1996b, Observations of slope processes in a tropical rain forest environment before and after forest plantation establishment, [w:] M.G. Anderson, S.M. Brooks (red.), Advances in Hillslope Processes, 2, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, s. 961–973.
76. McNabb D., Startsev A., Nguyen H., 2001, Soil wetness and traffic level effects on bulk density and air-filled porosity of compacted boreal forest soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, s. 1238–1247. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.6541238x
77. Megahan W.F., 1972, Subsurface flow interception by a logging road in mountains of central Idaho, [w:] Proceedings of the National Symposium on Watersheds in Transition, American Water Resources Association, Fort Collins, CO, s. 350–356.
78. Megahan W.F., 1983, Hydrologic effects of clearcutting and wildfire on steep granitic slopes in Idaho, Water Resources Research, 19, 3, s. 811–819. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR019i003p00811
79. Megahan W.F., 1987, Effects of forest roads on watershed function in mountainous areas, [w:] A.S. Balasubramaniam, D.T. Bergado, S. Chandra, P. Nutalaya (red.), Environmental Geotechnics and Problematic Soils and Rocks, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, s. 335–348.
80. Megahan W.F., Kidd W.J., 1972, Effects of logging roads on sediment production rates in the Idaho batholith. Research Paper INT-123, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
81. Montgomery D., 1994, Road surface drainage, channel initiation, and slope instability, Water Resources Research, 30, 6, s. 1925–1932. https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR00538
82. Noguchi S., Abdul Rahim N., Zulkifli Y., Tani M., Sammori T., 1997, Rainfall-runoff responses and roles of soil moisture variations to the response in tropical rain forest, Bukit Tarek, Malaysia, Journal of Forest Research, 2, s. 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02348209
83. Negishi J., Sidle R., Ziegler A., Noguchi S., Abdul Rahim N., 2008, Contribution of intercepted subsurface flow to road runoff and sediment transport in a logging-disturbed tropical catchment, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 33, s. 1174–1191. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1606
84. O'Loughlin C.L., 1972, The stability of steepland forest soils in the Coast Mountains, southwest British Columbia, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (praca doktorska).
85. O'Loughlin C.L., Pearce A.J., 1976, Influence of Cenozoic geology on mass movement and sediment yield response to forest removal, North Westland, NZ, Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, 14, s. 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02634757
86. Ortyl B., Ćwik A., Kasprzyk I., 2018, What happens in a Carpathian catchment after the sudden abandonment of cultivation?, Catena, 166, s. 158–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2018.04.002
87. Packer P.E., 1967, Criteria for designing and location roads to control sediment, Forest Science, 13, s. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestscience/13.1.2
88. Piehl B.T., Beschta R.L., Pyles M.R., 1988, Ditch-relief culverts and low-volume forest roads in the Oregon Coast Range, Northwest Science, 62, 3, s. 91–98.
89. Reid L.M., Dunne T., 1984, Sediment production from forest road surfaces, Water Resources Research, 20, 11, s. 1753–1761. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR020i011p01753
90. Reid L.M., 1981, Sediment production from gravel-surfaced forest roads, Clearwater basin, Washington. FRI-UW-8108, Fisheries Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle.
91. Sakals M., Sidle R.C., 2004, A spatial and temporal model of root strength in forest soils, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, s. 950–958. https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-268
92. Sidle R.C., Pearce A.J., O'Loughlin C.L., 1985, Hillslope Stability and Land Use, Water Resources Monograph, 11. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.1029/WM011
93. Sidle R.C., Sasaki S., Otsuki M., Noguchi S., Abdul Rahim N., 2004, Sediment pathways in a tropical forest: effects of logging roads and skid trails, Hydrological Processes, 18, s. 703–720. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1364
94. Sidle R.C., Ziegler A.D., Negishi J.N., Nik A.R., Siew R., Turkelboom F., 2006, Erosion processes in steep terrain – truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia, Forest Ecology and Management, 224, s. 199–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.019
95. Slinski K.M., Hogue T.S., Porter A.T., McCray J.E., 2016, Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States, Environmental Research Letters, 11. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/074010
96. Soja R., 2002, Hydrologiczne aspekty antropopresji w polskich Karpatach, Prace Geograficzne, 186, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
97. Startsev A.D., McNabb D.H., 2000, Effects of skidding on forest soil infiltration in west-central Alberta, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 80, s. 617–624. https://doi.org/10.4141/S99-092
98. Stednick J.D., 1996, Monitoring the effects of timber harvest on annual water yield, Journal of Hydrology, 176, s. 79–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02780-7
99. Steinbrenner C.E., Gessel S.P., 1955, The effect of tractor logging on physical properties of some forest soils in Southwestern Washington, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 19, s. 372–376. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1955.03615995001900030030x
100. Swift L.W. Jr. 1984, Gravel and grass surfacing reduces soil loss from mountain roads, Forest Science, 30, 3, s. 657–670.
101. Swift L.W. Jr. 1984, Soil losses from roadbeds and cut and fill slopes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 8, 4, s. 209–215.
102. Thakur V.C., 1996, Landslide Hazard Management and Control in India, International Center for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
103. Troendle C.A., King R.M., 1985, The effect of timber harvest on the Fool Creek watershed, 30 years later, Water Resources Research, 21, s. 1915–1922. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR021i012p01915
104. Tsukamoto Y., Ohta T., 1988, Runoff processes on a steep forested slope, Journal of Hydrology, 102, s. 165–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(88)90096-0
105. Wałdykowski P., Krzemień K., 2013, The role of road and footpath networks in shaping the relief of middle mountains on the example of the Gorce Mountains (Poland), Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 57, 4, s. 429–470. https://doi.org/10.1127/0372-8854/2013/0108
106. Wemple B.C., Jones J.A., Grant G.E., 1996, Channel network extension by logging roads in two basins, western Cascades, Oregon, Water Resources Bulletin, 32, 6, s. 1195–1207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1996.tb03490.x
107. Wemple B.C., Swanson F.J., Jones J.A., 2001, Forest roads and geomorphic process interactions, Cascade Range, Oregon, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 26, s. 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200102)26:2<191::AID-ESP175>3.0.CO;2-U
108. Wert S., Thomas B.R., 1981, Effects of skid roads on diameter, height, and volume growth in Douglas-fir, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 45, s. 629–632. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500030038x
109. Wronski E.B., 1984, Impact of tractor thinning operations on soils and tree roots in a Karri forest, Western Australia, Australian Forest Research, 14, s. 319–332.
110. Wu W., Sidle R.C., 1995, A distributed slope stability model for steep forested hillslopes, Water Resources Research, 31, 8, s. 2097–2110. https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR01136
111. Zemke J., 2016, Runoff and soil erosion assessment on forest roads using a small scale rainfall simulator, Hydrology, 3, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology3030025
112. Zenner E.K., Fauskee J.T., Berger A.L., Puettmann K.I., 2007, Impacts of skidding traffic intensity on soil disturbance, soil recovery, and aspen regeneration in north central Minnesota, Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 24, s. 177–183.


Przegląd Geograficzny





Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:



File size 0,3 MB ; application/octet-stream

Resource Identifier:

2300-8466 (on-line) ; oai:rcin.org.pl:70397 ; 2300-8466 (on-line) ; 10.7163/PrzG.2019.1.3


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, sygn.: Cz.181, Cz.3136, Cz.4187 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at:

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.






Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information