Object structure


Past Carpathian landscape recorded in the microtopography


Geographia Polonica Vol. 89 No. 3 (2016)


Affek, Andrzej : Autor ORCID


Affek, Andrzej : Autor



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



24 cm

Subject and Keywords:

abandoned villages ; earthworks ; LiDAR ; Austrian cadastral maps ; Carpathians


The objective of this study was to map traces of the past Carpathian landscape recorded in the microtopography in the chosen study area (25 km2) within the Wiar river basin. The area comprised two deserted villages (Borysławka and Posada Rybotycka) that were abandoned and afforested after forced displacement of Ruthenian highlanders in 1940s. Three groups of complementary research methods were used: remote sensing (airborne laser scanning – ALS as the main data source), analysis of archival sources and field survey. Sky-view factor (SVF) was applied as the main visualisation technique of the LiDAR-derived DTM for mapping purposes. The results demonstrated that there are numerous, well preserved earthworks created before World War II lying under the tree canopy, such as hollow ways, agricultural terraces, remnants of settlements, border mounds etc. They form a unique cultural heritage of former inhabitants that deserves to be protected.


1. Ackermann F., 1999. Airborne laser scanning – present status and future expectations. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 54, no. 2-3, pp. 64-67.
2. Affek A., 2011. Wartości krajobrazu opuszczonego przez ludność na przykładzie byłej rusińskiej wsi Borysławka. Prace Komisji Krajobrazu Kulturowego, vol. 15, pp. 148-160.
3. Affek A., 2014. Lotnicze skanowanie laserowe (ALS) w modelowaniu rzeźby terenu – nowe możliwości i pułapki. Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu, vol. 38, pp. 217-236.
4. Affek A., 2015. Exploring past Carpathian landscape: the application of LiDAR and archival cadastral maps. Archaeologia Polona, vol. 53, pp. 243-248.
5. Affek A., 2015. Spatially explicit changes in land ownership through 3 socio-political systems: A case study from southeast Poland. Geographia Polonica, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 519-530.
6. Affek A., 2016. Dynamika krajobrazu: uwarunkowania i prawidłowości na przykładzie dorzecza Wiaru w Karpatach (XVIII-XXI wiek). Prace Geograficzne, 251, Warszawa: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN.
7. Banaszek Ł., 2014. Lotniczy skaning laserowy w polskiej archeologii. Czy w pełni wykorzystywany jest potencjał prospekcyjny metody? Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia, vol. 19, pp. 207-251.
8. Chase A.F., Chase D.Z., Weishampel J.F., Drake J.B., Shrestha R.L., Slatton K.C., Awe J.J., Carter W.E., 2011. Airborne LiDAR, archaeology, and the ancient Maya landscape at Caracol, Belize. Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 387-398.
9. HESSE R., 2010. LiDAR-derived Local Relief Models – a new tool for archaeological prospection Archaeological Prospection, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 67-72.
10. Mlekuž D., 2013. Messy landscapes: lidar and the practices of landscaping [in:] R.S. Opitz, D.C. Cowley (eds.), Interpreting Archaeological Topography: 3D Data, Visualisation and Observation, Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 88-99.
11. NOVÁK D., 2014. Local Relief Model (LRM) Toolbox for ArcGIS, https://www.academia. edu/5618967/Local_Relief_Model_LRM_Toolbox_for_ArcGIS_UPDATE_2016-05_-_new_download_link_ (available 30.06.2016).
12. RIEGL, 2012. Datasheet LMS-Q680i, http://www.riegl.com/uploads/tx_pxpriegldownloads/10_DataSheet_LMS-Q680i_28-09-2012.pdf (available 30.06.2016).
13. Sittler B., Weinacker H., Gültlinger M., Koupaliantz L., 2007. The potential of Lidar in assessing elements of cultural heritage hidden under forests [in:] Z. Bochenek (ed.), New Developments and Challenges in Remote Sensing. Rotterdam: Millpress, pp. 539-548.
14. Wężyk P. (ed.), 2014. Podręcznik dla uczestników szkoleń z wykorzystania produktów LiDAR. Warszawa: GUGiK.
15. Zakšek K., Oštir K., Kokalj Ž., 2011. Sky-View Factor as a relief visualization technique. Remote Sensing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 398-415.
16. ZAPŁATA R., SZADY B., STEREŃCZAK K. (eds.), 2014. Laserowi Odkrywcy – nieinwazyjne badanie i dokumentowanie obiektów archeologicznych i historycznych województwa świętokrzyskiego. Stare Babice: Fundacja Centrum GeoHistorii.
17. Zoll-Adamik H., 1958. Wczesnośredniowieczne grodzisko w dolinie Wiaru (Polska). Acta Archaeologica Carpathica, vol. 1, pp. 125-128.


Geographia Polonica





Start page:


End page:


Resource type:


Detailed Resource Type:



File size 4,9 MB ; application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

0016-7282 ; 10.7163/GPol.0062


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link




Creative Commons Attribution BY-SA 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-SA 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-SA 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure





Citation style: