Object structure


Clusters as a tool of cooperation and formation of regional networks: evidences from Slovakia


Europa XXI 19 (2009)


Némethyová, Barbora ; Dolná, Zuzana



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



29 cm

Subject and Keywords:

clusters ; cluster policy ; regional development ; networks ; Slovakia


The importance of developing global and local networks and business clusters between fi rms and companies in order to reach competitiveness has recently become one of the most significant issues in modern economies. Geography plays an important role in this field because it places all these networks into particular space and territory, giving them specific characteristics. In the last two decades, firms and regions have actively engaged in networks to survive in global markets and to pursue sustainable development. However, due to the individualism of companies and the lack of knowledge of potential benefits of networking, cluster theories are still neglected as a tool for enhancing the regions` qualities and competitiveness in less developed countries. Furthermore, the theoretical information is not systematized but rather fragmented, it is insufficient and empirical studies are limited, too. The aim of this paper is to examine the role of networking and to provide a kind of background theory for further empirical research. First of all, it will summarize basic knowledge and theories about clusters and networks based on available literary sources. Clusters are not easy to defi ne and their classification is also not so clear, therefore this paper endeavours to clarify basic definitions, dynamics and typology of clusters and levels of networks so that it can serve as a conceptual frame for further empirical research. Finally, it will try to examine whether such clusters and networks do really exist in the Slovakian context and if they do, then whether they are comparable to those in Western European countries.


1. Anderson, T., Schwaag-Serger, A., Sorvik, J. and Hannson, E. (2004), The Cluster Policies Whitebook, IKED, Sweden. ; 2. Asheim, B., Cooke, P. and Martin, R. (2006), Clusters and Regional Development—Critical Reflections and Explorations, Routledge, Abingdon. ; 3. Automobilový klaster západné Slovensko, <http://www.autoklaster.sk/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1>, navštívené 15.8.2009. ; 4. Blažek, J. and Uhlíř, D. (2002) Teorie regionálního rozvoje, Univerzita Karlova v Prahe, Karolinum, Praha. ; 5. Břusková, P. (2003), Průmyslové klastry. Nová strategie zvyšovaní konkurenceschopnosti a regionálního rozvoje. Informační brožura k problematice průmyslových klastrů, Ostrava, <www.jic.cz/soubory/knihovna/prumyslove_klastry.pdf.> ; 6. Buček, M. et al. (1992), Priestorová ekonomika. Edičné stredisko, Ekonomická Univerzita v Bratislave, Bratislava. ; 7. Castells, M. (1996), The rise of the network society, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK. ; 8. Castells, M. (1997), The power of identity, Blackwell Publisher, Oxford, UK. ; 9. Cloke, P., Philo, Ch. and Sadler, D. (1991), Approaching human geography. An introductionto contemporary theoretical debates, Guilford Press, New York. ; 10. Cortright, J. (2006), Making sense of clusters: regional competitiveness and economic development, Impresa, The Brooking Institution Metropolitan Policy Program. ; 11. Energetický klaster Západné Slovensko,<http://trnava.sme.sk/c/4954003/energetickyklaster-ma-zvysit-konkurencieschopnost-firiem.html>, navštívené 15.8.2009. ; 12. Enright, M. J. (2003), Regional Clusters: What we know and what we should know, in: Brocker, J., Dohse, D.,and Soltwedel, R. (eds.) (2003), Innovation clusters and interregional competition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. ; 13. EU (2003), Final Report of the Experts Group on Enterprise Clusters and Networks, Brussels, Enterprise DG, <http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/entrepreneurship/support_measures> ; 14. European cluster memorandum. Promoting European innovation through clasters (2008), The High Level Advisory Group on Clusters. ; 15. European Commission (2005), Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs (2005–2008), European Communities, Luxembourg. ; 16. Haggett, P. and Chorley, R. J. (1969), Network analysis in Geography, Edward Arnold Publishers, London. ; 17. Hampl, M. (1989), Hierarchie reality a studium sociálnegeografických systémů, Rozpravy ČSAV, 99, Academia nakladatelství ČSAV, Praha. ; 18. Hubbard, Ph., Kitchin, R., Bartley, B. and Fuller, D. (2005), Thinking geographically, Continuum, London. ; 19. IKT klaster Žilina, <http://www.zaict.sk/>, navštívené 15.8.2009. ; 20. Iniciatíva Cluster Linked over Europe (2006), Information about clusters, dostupné na: <http://www.clusterforum.org/>, navštívené 10.7.2009. ; 21. IT Valley Košice, <http://www.kosiceitvalley.sk/index.php?ids=19>, navštívené 15.8.2009. ; 22. Johnston, R. J. and Sidaway, J. D. (2004), Geography and geographers. Anglo-American human geography since 1945, Arnold, London. ; 23. Johnston, R. J., Taylor, P. J. and Watts, M. J. (2002), Geographies of global change remapping the world, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. ; 24. Klaster Liptov, <http://www.klasterliptov.sk/>: navštívené 18.8.2009. ; 25. Kodríková, E. (2008), Zakladáme strojársky a drevársky klaster, <http://www.vucbb.sk/ganet/vuc/bb/portal.nsf/wnovinky/7ef1c9b04fafb08ac1257467002bfd0c?Open Document>, navštívené 3.9.2009. ; 26. Kopka, R. and Kovalčíková, J. (2009), Klaster Turca má prilákať turistov, <http://turiec.sme.sk/c/4908614/klaster-turca-ma-prilakat-turistov.html>, navštívené 25.8.2009. ; 27. Mlčoch, L. (2005), Institucionální ekonomie, Karolinum, Praha. ; 28. Molnár, P. (2004), Innovation management, Ekonóm, Bratislava. ; 29. Murdoch, J. (2006), Post-structuralist geography, Sage Publications, London. ; 30. Novohradský klaster, <http://www.rra-lc.sk/?p=429>, navštívené dňa 25.8.2009. ; 31. Oravský klaster, <http://relax.etrend.sk/relax-cestovanie/dalsi-klaster.html>;<http://www.slovakia.travel/data/Resources/Upload/Doc/Novinky/Klaster%20Orava%20zalozeny.rtf>, navštívené 12.8.2009. ; 32. Pavelková, D. et. al. (2009), Klastry a jejich vliv na výkonnost firem, Grada Publishing, a.s., Praha. ; 33. Plastikársky klaster Nitra, <http://www.plasticportal.eu/sk>, navštívené 15.8.2009. ; 34. Porter, M. (1990), The competitive advantage of nations, The Free Press, New York. ; 35. Porter, M. (1993), Konkurenční výhoda, Victoria Publishing, Praha. ; 36. Porter, M. (1998), On Competition, Harward Business School Press, Boston. ; 37. PRO INNO Europe, CLUNET (2007), Cluster Policy Guidelines Report, <www.proinnoeurope.eu/admin/uploaded_documents/CLUNET_policy_Guidelines_080108.pdf.> ; 38. Regional clusters in Europe, EC (2002), Synthesis report cluster mapping, Clusterobservatory, <http://www.clusterobservatory.eu/upload/Synthesis_report_cluster_mapping.pdf> ; 39. Roelandt, T. J. A. and den Hertog, P. (eds.) (1998), Cluster analysis and cluster-based policy in OECD countries, OECD Focus Group, Hague-Utrecht. ; 40 . Rosenfeld, S. (2002), A Governor`s guide to cluster based economic development, National Governors Association Washington. ; 41. Ružičková, M. (2009), Najväčší záujem je o kúpele a vodnú turistiku, <http://hnonline.sk/c1-36926520-najvacsi-zaujem-je-o-kupele-a-vodnu-turistiku>, navštívené 22.8.2009. ; 42. Skokan, K. (2006), Regionální inovační systémy a klastry v rozvoji regionů, Inovativní koncepty s socioekonomickém rozvoji územních jednotek, Sborník příspěvků, Universitas Ostraviensis, Ostrava. ; 43. Šmíd, J. (2008), Nano-klaster Trenčín, <http://www.nanosvet.sk/_paper/Nanoklaster.pdf>, navštívené 18.8.2009. ; 44. TASR (2009), Samosprávny kraj a Galanta založia elektrotechnický klaster, <http://openiazoch.zoznam.sk/info/zpravy/zprava.asp?NewsID=60319>,navštívené 15.8.2009. ; 45. TASR (2009), Založenie sklárskeho klastra v Poltári napreduje, <http://dnes.atlas.sk/ekonomika/podnikanie/578551/zalozenie-sklarskeho-klastra-v-poltari-napreduje>,navštívené dňa 3.9.2009. ; 46. UNIDO (2001), Development of clusters and network of SMEs, The UNIDO Programme, OECD, Vienna. ; 47. Wokoun, R., Malinovský, J., Damborský, M., Blažek, J. et al. (2008), Regionálny rozvoj, Linde, Praha. ; 48. Zadražilová, D. et al. (2004), Mezinárodní management, Nakladatelství Oeconomica, Praha.


Europa XXI



Start page:


End page:


Resource Type:



File size 0,8 MB ; application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

1429-7132 ; 10.7163/Eu21.2008.19.9


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link




Rights Reserved - Free Access

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. May be used within the limits of statutory user freedoms

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure



Citation style: