May landscape description be considered an eco-critical metaphor? This paper proposes a text analysis of two post-apocalyptic narratives, Cormac McCarthy’s The Road, as novel and movie, and the zombie drama The Walking Dead, as graphic novel and television series. Neither narrative provides an explanation for its apocalypse, or a direct warning as regards human environmental misbehaviour. But both the barren landscape described in the former work, and the renaturalizing one presented in the latter second may convey an environmental meaning, albeit in a different way. To evaluate the way in which contemporary audiences negotiate this, further research would be necessary.
1. Almond S., 2013. The apocalypse market is booming. New York Times, 27 September.
2. Andrade G.M., 2009. The road to post apocalyptic fiction: McCarthy's challenges to post-apocalyptic genre. Feinstein College of Arts and Sciences Faculty Papers, 20.
3. Balaji M. (ed.), 2013. Thinking dead. What the zombie apocalypse means. Lanham: Lexington Books.
4. Baldwin M., McCarthy M., 2013. Same as it ever was: Savior narratives and the logic of survival in The Walking Dead [in:] M. Balaji (ed.), Thinking dead. What the zombie apocalypse means. Lanham: Lexington Books, pp. 79-85.
5. Bennet J., Chalouptka W., 1993. In the nature of things: Language, politics, and the environment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
6. Bishop K.W., 2010. American zombie Gothic. The rise and fall (and rise) of The Walking Dead in popular culture. Jefferson-London: McFarland& Co.
7. Blackmore T., 2009. Life of war, death of the rest: the shining path of Cormac McCarthy's thermonuclear America. Bulletin of Science Technology Society, vol. 29, no.1, pp. 18-36.
8. Bragard V., 2013. Sparing words in the wasted land: Garbage, texture, and écriture blanche in Auster's in the country of last things and McCarthy's The Road. Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 479-493.
9. Brian P., 1984. Nuclear war in science fiction, 1945-59. Science Fiction Studies, vol. 11, no. 34, pp. 253-263.
10. Broderick M., 1993. Surviving armageddon: Beyond the imagination of disaster. Science Fiction Studies, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 362-382, http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/backissues/61/broderick-61art.htm [15 May 2014].
11. Buell L., 1995. The environmental imagination. Thoreau, nature writing and the formation of American culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
12. Burgess J., 1990. The production and consumption of environmental meanings in the mass media: A research agenda for the 1990s. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 139-161.
13. Castree N., 2014. Making sense of nature. London-New York: Routledge.
14. Chabon M., 2007. After the apocalypse. The New York Review of Books, vol. 54, no. 2, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2007/feb/15/after-the-apocalypse/?insrc=toc [15 May 2014].
15. Cummins Cogell E., 1978. The middle-landscape myth in science fiction. Science Fiction Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 134-142.
16. Cusimano G. (ed.), 1999. La costruzione del paesaggio siciliano: geografie scrittori a confronto. Palermo: Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università di Palermo "La Memoria".
17. Dalby S., 1996. Reading Rio, writing the world: The New York Times and the Earth Summit. Political Geography, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 593-613.
18. Danta C., 2012. The cold illucid world: The poetics of gray in Cormac McCarthy's The Road [in:] J. Murphet, M. Steven (eds.), Styles of Extinction: Cormac McCarthy's The Road. New York: Continuum, pp. 9-26.
19. Darby H.C., 1948. The regional geography of Thomas Hardy's Wessex. The Geographical Review, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 426-43.
20. De Bruyn B., 2010. Borrowed time, borrowed world and borrowed eyes: Care, ruin and vision in McCarthy's The Road and Harrison's ecocriticism. English Studies, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 776-789.
21. dell' Agnese E., 2008. Geo-graphing: writing worlds [in:] K. Cox, M. Low, J. Robinson (eds.), The SAGE handbook of political geography. London: SAGE Publications, pp. 439-455.
22. dell'Agnese E., 2009. Paesaggi ed eroi. Cinema, nazione, geopolitica. Torino: Utet Libreria.
23. dell'Agnese E., 2011. Cinema e ambiente: ecocriticism e geografia (eco)critica [in:] E. dell'Agnese, A. Rondinone (eds.), Cinema, ambiente, territorio. Milano: Unicopli, pp. 11-24.
24. dell'Agnese E., 2011. Primavere silenziose. Visioni distopiche e discorso ambientalista [in:] E. dell'Agnese, A. Rondinone (eds.), Cinema, ambiente, territorio. Milano: Unicopli, pp. 39-56.
25. dell'Agnese E., 2012. La strada inversa. Verso una geografia (eco)critica della letteratura postapocalittica e distopica. Bollettino della Società Geografica, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 541-562
26. Dittmer J., 2010. Popular culture, geopolitics, and identity. Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield.
27. Dryzek J., 2013. The politics of the Earth: Environmental discourses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
28. Edwards T., 2008. Waste land of Cormac McCarthy's the road. The Cormac McCarthy Journal, vol. 6, special issue, pp. 55-61.
29. Gallivan E., 2008. Compassionate McCarthy?: The Road and Schopenhauerian ethics. The Cormac McCarthy Journal, vol. 6, special issue, pp. 100-106.
30. Gandy M., 1996. Crumbling land: The postmodernity debate and the analysis of environmental problems, Progress in Human Geography, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 23-40.
31. Garrard G., 2012. Ecocriticism. London-New York: Routledge.
32. Gifford T., 2008. Recent critiques to ecocriticism. New Formations, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 15-24.
33. Glacken C.J., 1967. Traces on the Rhodian shore. Nature and culture in western thought from ancient times to the end of the eighteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
34. Glotfelty C., 1996. Introduction: Literary studies in an age of environmental crisis [in:] C. Glotfelty, H. Fromm (eds.), The ecocriticism reader: Landmarks in literary ecology. Athens-London: University of Georgia, pp. 15-37.
35. Graulund R., 2010. Fulcrums and borderlands. A desert reading of Cormac McCarthy's The Road. Orbis Litterarum, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 57-78.
36. Gruber Godfrey L., 2011. 'The world he'd lost': geography and 'green' memory in Cormac McCarthy's The Road. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 163-175.
37. Hajer M., Versteeg W., 2005. A decade of discourse analysis of environmental politics: Achievements, challenges, perspectives. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, vol. 7, no. 3, pp.175-184.
38. Hambrick K.M., 2011. The end of apocalypse: The rhetoric of apocalypse in contemporary environmental discourse. Reno: University of Nevada. Department of English, [M.A, pub. no. 1498656].
39. Harvey D., 1993. The nature of environment: Dialectics of social and environmental change. Socialist Register, 29, London: Merlin Press [preprint].
40. Ibarrola-Armendariz A., 2009-2010. Crises across the board in Cormac Mc Carthy's The Road. Revista de Estudios Norteamericanos, 14, pp. 81-105.
41. Ingram D., 2000. Green screen. Environmentalism and Hollywood cinema. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
42. Jurgensen J., 2009. Hollywood's favourite cowboy. The Wall Street Journal, 20 November.
43. Katz C., 1994. Under the falling sky: Apocalyptic environmentalism and the production of nature [in:] A. Callari, C. Biewener, S. Cullenberg (eds.), Marxism in the postmodern age: Confronting the new world order. New York: Guilford, pp. 274-280.
44. Keetley D. (ed.), 2014. We're all infected. Essays on AMC The Walking Dead and the fate of the human. Jefferson: McFarland.
45. Ketterer D., 1974. New worlds for old: The apocalyptic imagination. Science Fiction, and American Literature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
46. Kollin S., 2011. Barren, silent, godless: Ecodisaster and the post-abundant landscape in The Road [in:] S.L. Spurgeon (ed.), Cormac McCarthy all the pretty horses, no country for old men, The Road. London: Continuum, pp. 157-171.
47. Kozma A., 2013. Leave it all behind: The postapocalyptical renunciation of technology in The Walking Dead [in:] M. Balaji (ed.), Thinking dead. What the zombie apocalypse means. Lanham: Lexington Books, pp. 218-245.
48. Kreuziger F., 1982. Apocalypse and science fiction: A dialectic of religious and secular soteriologies. Chico: Scholar Press.
49. Luttrull D., 2010. Prometheus hits the road: Revising the myth. The Cormac McCarthy Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 17-28.
50. Monbiot G., 2007. The road well travelled. The Guardian, 30 October, http://www.monbiot.com/2007/10/30/the-road-well-travelled/ [15 May 2014].
51. Monbiot G., 2013. Feral: Searching for enchantment on the frontiers of rewilding. London: Allen Lane.
52. Overbey E., 2012. Why The Walking Dead is like a western. The New Yorker, 14 October, http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/backissues/2012/10/why-the-walking-dead-is-reallya-western.html [16 May 2014].
53. Platts T.K., 2013. Locating zombies in the sociology of popular culture. Sociology Compass, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 547-560.
54. Pocock D.C.D. (ed.), 1981. Humanistic geography and literature: Essays on the experience of place. London: Croom Helm.
55. Porter J., 1993. Narrating the end: Fables of survival in the nuclear age. Journal of American Culture, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 41-47.
56. Power M., Crampton A. (eds.), 2007. Cinema and popular geopolitics. London-New York: Routledge.
57. Rueckert W., 1978. Literature and ecology: An experiment in ecocriticism. Iowa Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 71-86 [reprinted in C. Glotfelty, H. Fromm (eds.), 1966. The ecocriticism reader: Landmarks in literary ecology, pp. 105-123].
58. Saunders A., 2010. Literary geography: Reforging the connections. Progress in Human Geography, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 436-452.
59. Saunders R.A., 2012. Undead spaces: Fear, globalisation, and the popular geopolitics of zombiism. Geopolitics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 80-104.
60. Sestini A., 1947. Il paesaggio antropogeografico come forma d'equilibrio. Bollettino della Società geografica italiana, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 1-8.
61. Sponsler C., 1993. Beyond the ruins: The geopolitics of urban decay and cybernetic play. Science Fiction Studies, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 251-265.
62. Swyngedouw E., 2010. Apocalypse forever? Postpolitical populism and the spectre of climate change. Theory, Culture and Society, vol. 27, no. 2-3, pp. 213-232.
63. Tuan Yi-Fu, 1977. Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and culture in Western thought from ancient times to the end of the eighteenth century. Clarence J. Glacken. [Book review], Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 460-462.
64. Tuathail G., 1996. Critical geopolitics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
65. Walsh C.J., 2008. The post-southern sense of place in the road. The Cormac McCarthy Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 48-54.
66. Wielenberg E., 2010. God, morality, and meaning in Cormac McCarthy's The Road. The Cormac McCarthy Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp.1-16.
67. Willoquet-Maricondi P. (ed.), 2010. Framing the world. Explorations in ecocriticism and film. Charlosville: University of Virginia.
68. Winkel Holm I., 2009. The cultural imagination of climate change: Disaster images of the human. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 6, http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/6/57/572043/pdf/1755-1315_6_57_572043.pdf [16 May 2014].
69. Wright J.K., 1947. Terrae incognitae: The place of imagination in geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1-15.
70. Yanarella E., 2001. The cross, the plow, and the skyline: Contemporary science fiction and the ecological imagination. Parkland: Brown Walker Press.
71. Young P.I., 2014. Walking tall or walking dead? The American cowboy in the zombie apocalypse [in:] D. Keetley (ed.), We're all infected. Essays on AMC The Walking Dead and the fate of the human. Jefferson: McFarland, pp. 56-67.
72. Yuen W. (ed.), 2012. The Walking Dead and philosophy. Zombie apocalypse now. Chicago: Open Court.
Oct 2, 2020
Aug 8, 2014
|Dell'Agnese E. - Post-apocalypse now: Landscape and environmental valuesin The Road and The Walking Dead||Oct 2, 2020|
Chmielewski, Tadeusz Jan (1950– ) Chmielewski, Szymon Kułak, Agnieszka (1983– )
Regulska, Edyta Kowalska, Anna Kruczkowska, Bogusława
Continental-Caoutchouc- und Gutta-Percha Compagnie (Hanower). Redaktor. Wydawca
Degórska, Bożena (1956– ) Degórski, Marek