Object structure

Impact of climate change on snowpack and avalanches in Slovenia: The Soča Valley case study


Geographia Polonica Vol. 96 No. 1 (2023)


Komac, Blaž : Autor Affiliation ; Zorn, Matija : Autor Affiliation ORCID



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



24 cm

Subject and Keywords:

geography ; climate change ; avalanche ; maximum snow depth ; North Atlantic Oscillation ; Upper Soča Valley ; SE Alps ; Slovenia


The article discusses avalanche occurrence in the Slovenian Alps (SE Alps) in the context of climate change. It analyses the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation and maximum snow depth over the last two centuries, and the relationships between maximum snow depth and avalanches over the last three decades. We argue that higher temperatures lead to precipitation in the form of rain at higher elevations even in winter, so that major wet avalanches occur already in winter rather than in early spring, as was more common in the past. A case study of extreme avalanches in January 2021 is presented to support the hypothesis.


Adger, W. N., Eakin, H., & Winkels, A. (2009). Nested and teleconnected vulnerabilities to environmental change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(3), 150-157. https://doi.org/10.1890/070148 DOI
AghaKouchak, A., Huning, L. S., Chiang, F., Sadegh, M., Vahedifard, F., Mazdiyasni, O., Moftakhari, H., & Mallakpour, I. (2018). How do natural hazards cascade to cause disasters? Nature, 561, 458-460. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-06783-6 DOI
Ahrens, C. D., & Sampson, P. (2011). Extreme Weather and Climate. Belmont: Brooks/Cole.
Ancey, C., & Bain, V. (2015). Dynamics of glide avalanches and snow gliding. Reviews of Geophysics, 53(3), 745-784. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015RG000491 DOI
Andrič, M., Sabatier, P., Rapuc, W., Ogrin, N., Dolenec, M., Arnaud, F., von Grafenstein, U., & Šmuc, A. (2020). 6600 years of human and climate impacts on lake-catchment and vegetation in the Julian Alps (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia). Quaternary Science Reviews, 227, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.106043 DOI
Auer, I., Böhm, R., Jurkovic, A., Lipa, W., Orlik, A., Potzmann, R., Schöner, W., Ungersböck, M., Matulla, C., Briffa, K., Jones, P., Efthymiadis, D., Brunetti, M., Nanni, T., Maugeri, M., Mercalli, L., … & Nieplova, E. (2007). HISTALP - historical instrumental climatological surface time series of the Greater Alpine Region. International Journal of Climatology, 27(1), 17-46. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1377 DOI
Badjura, R. (1953). Ljudska geografija: Terensko izrazoslovje. Ljubljana: Državna založba Slovenije.
Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A., Trappmann, D., Madrigal-González, J., Eckert, N., & Stoffel, M. (2018). Climate warming enhances snow avalanche risk in the Western Himalayas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(13), 3410-3415. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1716913115 DOI
Benestad, R. E. (2018). Implications of a decrease in the precipitation area for the past and the future. Environment Research Letters, 13(4), 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aab375 DOI
Berg, P., Moseley, C., & Haerter, J. O. (2013). Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures. Nature Geosciences, 6, 181-185. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1731 DOI
Bernot, F. (1980). Pozor plaz: nevarnost snežnih plazov. Ljubljana: Smučarska zveza Slovenije, Planinska zveza Slovenije.
Bernot, F., Horvat, A., Pavšek, M., & Šegula, P. (1994). Ogroženost Slovenije s snežnimi plazovi. (Typescript). Ljubljana: Podjetje za urejanje hudournikov.
Bernot, F., & Šegula, P. (1983). Preliminarno poročilo o delu na katastru snežnih plazov na ozemlju SR Slovenije. (Typescript). Ljubljana: Hidrometeorološki zavod SRS.
Birkeland, K. W., & Mock, C. J. (2001). The major snow avalanche cycle of February 1986 in the Western United States. Natural Hazards, 24, 75-95. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011192619039 DOI
Birkeland, K. W., Mock, C. J., & Shinker, J. J. (2001). Avalanche extremes and atmospheric circulation patterns. Annals of Glaciology, 32, 135-140. https://doi.org/10.3189/172756401781819030 DOI
Bollati, I. M., & Cavalli, M. (2020). Geomorphic systems, sediment connectivity and geomorphodiversity: relations within a small mountain catchment in the Lepontine Alps. In M. Alvioli, I. Marchesini, L. Melelli, & P. Guth (Eds.), Proceedings of the Geomorphometry 2020 Conference (pp. 50-54). Perugia: CNR Edizioni. https://doi.org/10.30437/GEOMORPHOMETRY2020_14 DOI
Cabinet Office. (2011). Keeping the country running: Natural hazards and infrastructure: A Guide to improving the resilience of critical infrastructure and essential services. London: Civil Contingencies Secretariat, Cabinet Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/61342/natural-hazards-infrastructure.pdf [24 May 2022]
Carter, N., Viña, A., Hull, V., McConnell, W., Axinn, W., Ghimire, D., & Liu, J. (2014). Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation. Ecology and Society, 19(3). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06881-190343 DOI
Cegnar, T. (2015). Meteorološka postaja Kredarica: 1954-2014. Ljubljana: ARSO.
Delo. (2012). Nekaj centimetrov do popolne katastrofe. Delo, 6 Nov. 2012. https://old.delo.si/novice/slovenija/nekaj-centimetrov-do-popolne-katastrofe.html [24 May 2022]
Dreier, L, Harvey, S., van Herwijnen, A., & Mitterer, C. (2016). Relating meteorological parameters to glide-snow avalanche activity. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 128, 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2016.05.003 DOI
Eakin, H., Winkels, A., & Sendzimir, J. (2009). Nested vulnerability: Exploring cross-scale linkages and vulnerability teleconnections in Mexican and Vietnamese coffee systems. Environmental Science and Policy, 12(4), 398-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2008.09.003 DOI
Eckert, N., Coleou, C., Castebrunet, H., Deschatres, M., Giraud, G., & Gaume, J. (2010a). Cross-comparison of meteorological and avalanche data for characterising avalanche cycles: The example of December 2008 in the eastern part of the French Alps. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 64(2), 119-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2010.08.009 DOI
Eckert, N., Parent, E., Kies, R., & Baya, H. (2010b). A spatio-temporal modelling framework for assessing the fluctuations of avalanche occurrence resulting from climate change: application to 60 years of data in the northern French Alps. Climatic Change, 101, 515-553. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9718-8 DOI
EEA. (2021). Heavy precipitation in Europe. European Environment Information and Observation Network. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/precipitation-extremes-in-europe-3/assessment-1 [24 May 2022]
European Commission. (2005). Green Paper on a European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection. Brussels: European Commission.
Fischer, E. M., & Knutti, R. (2016). Observed heavy precipitation increase confirms theory and early models. Nature Climate Change, 6, 986-991. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3110 DOI
Gabrovec, M., Hrvatin, M., Komac, B., Ortar, J., Pavšek, M., Topole, M., Triglav Čekada, M., & Zorn, M. (2014). Triglavski ledenik. Geografija Slovenije (vol. 30). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789610503644 DOI
Gams, I. (1955). Snežni plazovi v Sloveniji v zimah 1950-1954. Geografski zbornik, 3, 121-219.
García-Sellés, C., Peña, J. C., Martí, G., Oller, P., & Martínez, P. (2010). WeMOi and NAOi influence on major avalanche activity in the Eastern Pyrenees. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 64(2), 137-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2010.08.003 DOI
Gądek, B., Kaczka, R. J., Rączkowska, Z., Rojan, E., Casteller, A., & Bebi, P. (2017). Snow avalanche activity in Żleb Żandarmerii in a time of climate change (Tatra Mts., Poland). Catena, 158, 201-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.07.005 DOI
Gill, J. C., & Malamud, B. D. (2014). Reviewing and visualizing the interactions of natural hazards. Advancing Earth and Space Science, 52(4), 680-722. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013RG000445 DOI
Hao, Z., AghaKouchak, A., & Phillips, T. J. (2013). Changes in concurrent monthly precipitation and temperature extremes. Environment Research Letters, 8(3), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034014 DOI
Helbing, D. (2013). Globally networked risks and how to respond. Nature, 497, 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12047 DOI
Horvat, A. (1999). Zagotovitev varnosti pred snežnimi plazovi na državnih cestah Republike Slovenije. (Typescript). Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za promet in zveze.
Horvat, A., & Bernot, F. (1994). Ogroženost Slovenije s snežnimi plazovi. Ujma, 8, 156-161.
Höller, P. (2009). Avalanche cycles in Austria: an analysis of the major events in the last 50 years. Natural Hazards, 48(3), 399-424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-008-9271-1 DOI
Hrvatin, M., & Zorn, M. (2020). Climate and hydrological changes in Slovenia's mountain regions between 1961 and 2018. Ekonomska i ekohistorija, 16, 201-218.
Huggel, C., Caplan-Auerbach, J., & Wessels, R. (2008). Recent extreme avalanches: Triggered by climate change? EOS Transactions AGU 89(47), 469-470. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008EO470001 DOI
Jomelli, V., Delval, C., Grancher, D., Escande, S., Brunstein, D., Hetu, B., Filion, L., & Pech, P. (2007). Probabilistic analysis of recent snow avalanche activity and weather in the French Alps. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 47(1-2), 180-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.08.003 DOI
Kadri, F., Birregah, B., & Châtelet, E. (2014). The impact of natural disasters on critical infrastructures: A domino effect-based study. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 11(2), 217-241. https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2012-0077 DOI
Kahneman, D. (2016). Thinking, fast and slow. Paris: Slammarion.
Keiler, M., Knight, J., & Harrison, S. (2010). Climate change and geomorphological hazards in the eastern European Alps. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 386(1919), 2461-2479. http://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0047 DOI
Keylock, C. J. (2010). The North Atlantic Oscillation and snow avalanching in Iceland. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(5), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016272 DOI
Kobal, M., Kostevc, M., & Papež, J. (2021). Nevarnost snežnih plazov v Zgornji Soški dolini: vzorci in procesi ob spremembah podnebja. Mišičev vodarski dan, 32, 310-316.
Komac, B., Pavšek, M, Volk Bahun, M., & Tičar, J. (2021). Snežni plazovi v dolini Soče 22. in 23. januarja 2021. (Expert report). Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU. https://giam.zrc-sazu.si/sites/default/files/zrc_sazu-giam_elaborat-snezni_plazovi_v_dolini_soce-22.-23.1.2021_0.pdf [28 Dec 2022]
Korup, O., & Rixen, C. (2014). Soil erosion and organic carbon export by wet snow avalanches. The Cryosphere, 8(2), 651-658. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-8-651-2014 DOI
Kunaver, P. (1921). Na planine. Ljubljana: Učiteljska tiskarna.
Laternser, M., & Schneebeli, M. (2002). Temporal trend and spatial distribution of avalanche activity during the last 50 years in Switzerland. Natural Hazards, 27(3), 201-230. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020327312719 DOI
Laute, K., & Beylich, A. A. (2014). Morphometric and meteorological controls on recent snow avalanche distribution and activity at hillslopes in steep mountain valleys in western Norway. Geomorphology, 218, 16-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.06.006 DOI
Laute, K., & Beylich, A. A. (2018). Potential effects of climate change on future snow avalanche activity in western Norway deduced from meteorological data. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography, 100(2), 163-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/04353676.2018.1425622 DOI
Louchet, F. (2020). Snow avalanches: beliefs, facts, and science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198866930.001.0001 DOI
Malamud, B. D. (2004). Tails of natural hazards. Physics World, 17(8), 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-7058/17/8/35 DOI
Malešič, F. (2005). Spomin in opomin gora: kronika smrtnih nesreč v slovenskih gorah. Radovljica: Didakta.
McClung, D., & Schaerer, P. A. (2006). The Avalanche Handbook. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books.
Mikoš, M. (2014). O izrazih nezgoda, naravna nesreča, naravna katastrofa in naravna kataklizma. Ujma, 28, 306-310.
Mikoš, M., Fazarinc, R., & Ribičič, M. (2006). Sediment production and delivery from recent large landslides and earthquake-induced rock falls in the Upper Soča River Valley, Slovenia. Engineering Geology, 86(2-3), 198-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.02.015 DOI
Mikša, P., & Zorn, M. (2016). The beginnings of the research of Slovenian Alps. Geografski vestnik, 88(2), 103-131. https://doi.org/10.3986/GV88206 DOI
Min, S. K., Zhang, X., Zwiers, F. W., & Hegerl, G. C. (2011). Human contribution to more-intense precipitation extremes. Nature, 470, 378-381. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09763 DOI
Murray, V., Abrahams, J., Abdallah, C., Ahmed, K., Angeles, L., Benouar, D., Brenes Torres, A., Chang Hun, C., Cox, S., Douris, J., Fagan, L., Fra Paleo, U., Han, Q., Handmer, J., Hodson, S., Khim, W., Mayner, L., … & Wright, N. (2021). Hazard information profiles: Supplement to UNDRR-ISC hazard definition & classification review: Technical report. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. https://www.undrr.org/publication/hazard-information-profiles-supplement-undrr-isc-hazard-definition-classification [24 May 2022]
Myhre, G., Alterskjær, K., Stjern, C. W., Hodnebrog, Ø., Marelle, L., Samset, B. H., Sillmann, J., Schaller, N., Fischer, E., Schulz, M., & Stohl, A. (2019). Frequency of extreme precipitation increases extensively with event rareness under global warming. Scientific Reports, 9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52277-4 DOI
NAO. (2019). North Atlantic Oscillation. University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit. https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/nao/ [24 May 2022]
Norris, J., Chen, G., & Neelin, J. D. (2019). Changes in frequency of large precipitation accumulations over land in a warming climate from the CESM large ensemble: The roles of moisture, circulation, and duration. Journal of Climate, 32(17), 5397-5416. https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-18-0600.1 DOI
NSIDC. (2020). Snow Avalanches. Boulder: University of Colorado, National Snow and Ice Data Center. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/snow/science/avalanches.html [24 May 2022]
Ogrin, M., & Ortar, J. (2007). The importance of water accumulation of snow cover measurements in mountainous regions of Slovenia. Acta geographica Slovenica, 47(1), 47-71. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS47103 DOI
Oven, D., Žabota, B., & Kobal, M. (2020). The influence of abiotic and biotic disturbances on the protective effect of alpine forests against avalanches and rockfalls. Acta Silvae et Ligni, 121, 1-18. http://doi.org/10.20315/ASetL.121.1 DOI
Papalexiou, S. M., & Montanari, A. (2019). Global and regional increase of precipitation extremes under global warming. Water Resources Research, 55(6), 4901-4914. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018wr024067 DOI
Pavšek, M. (2002). Snežni plazovi v Sloveniji. Geografija Slovenije (vol. 6). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789612545000 DOI
Pavšek, M. (2006). Prebujeni beli zmaji: letošnjo zimsko sezono so opozorili nase številni snežni plazovi. Planinski vestnik, 106(7), 18-22.
Pavšek, M. (2010). Analiza rušilnih snežnih plazov spomladi 2009 na območju koče na Doliču in smernice za preventivo. Ujma, 24, 121-131.
Pavšek, M. (2014). Der Winter 2013/14 in Slowenien: ein Saisonrückblick. Saisonbericht der österreichischen Lawinenwarndienste 2013/14, 164-171.
Pavšek, M., Komac, B., Volk Bahun, M., Ortar, J., Zorn, M., Ciglič, R., & Ferk, M. (2013). Zemljevidi nevarnosti za snežne plazove na Gorenjskem. In I. Mrak, I. Potočnik Slavič, & B. Rogelj (Eds.), Gorenjska v obdobju glokalizacije (pp. 61-74). Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete.
Pavšek, M., Komac, B., & Zorn, M. (2010). Ugotavljanje lavinske nevarnosti s pomočjo GIS-a. In D. Perko, & M. Zorn (Eds.), Geografski informacijski sistemi v Sloveniji 2009-2010 (pp. 131-146), GIS v Sloveniji (vol. 10). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789612545673 DOI
Pavšek, M., & Velkavrh, A. (2005). Snežni plazovi vzdolž regionalne ceste (R1-206) Kranjska Gora - Vršič - Trenta: povzetek ugotovitev iz podatkovne baze lavinskega katastra in dejansko stanje z vidika celoletne prevoznosti ceste. (Typescript). Ljubljana: Geografski inštitut Antona Melika ZRC SAZU, ARSO, Urad za meteorologijo.
Peitzsch, E. H., Hendrikx, D. J., & Fagre, D. B. (2015). Terrain parameters of glide snow avalanches and a simple spatial glide snow avalanche model. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 120, 237-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2015.08.002 DOI
Pelling, M. (2003). The vulnerability of cities: Natural disasters and social resilience. London: Earthscan.
Pintar, J. (1968). Snežni plazovi: 2. del: ustalitveni objekti za vezanje snega na pobočjih. (Typescript). Ljubljana: Podjetje za urejanje hudournikov.
Pintar, J., & Mikoš, M. (1984). Povzetek dosedaj opravljenih del s področja urejanja snežnih plazov za potrebe operativne hudourniške dejavnosti. (Typescript). Ljubljana: Vodnogospodarski inštitut.
Quadrelli, R., Lazzeri, M., Cacciamani, C., & Tibaldi, S. (2001). Observed winter Alpine precipitation variability and links with large-scale circulation patterns. Climate Research, 17(3), 275-284. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr017275 DOI
Rafferty, J. P. (2019). North Atlantic Oscillation. In Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/North-Atlantic-Oscillation [28 Dec 2022]
Rawlins, M. A. (2022). Why a warming climate can bring bigger snowstorms. The Conversation, 2 Feb. 2022. https://theconversation.com/why-a-warming-climate-can-bring-bigger-snowstorms-176201 [24 May 2022]
Rączkowska, Z., Długosz, M., & Rojan, E. (2016). Geomorphological conditions of snow avalanches in the Tatra Mountains. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 60(4), 285-297. https://doi.org/10.1127/zfg/2016/0289
Rączkowska, Z., Rojan, E., & Długosz, M. (2016). The morphodynamics of slopes within the snow avalanche starting zones in the Tatras. Geographia Polonica, 89(1), 17-29. https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0043 DOI
Reiweger, I, & Gobiet, A. (2019). Gleitschneelawinen. In Tagungsband des 3. internationalen Lawinensymposiums (pp. 42-44). Graz: Naturfreunde Österreich.
Rudolf-Miklau, F., & Sauermoser, S. (2011). Handbuch Technischer Lawinenschutz. Berlin: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn. DOI
Schweizer, J., Bartelt, P., & van Herwijnen, A. (2014). Snow avalanches. In W. Haeberli, & C. Whiteman (Eds.), Snow and ice-related hazards, risks, and disasters (pp. 377-416). Amsterdam: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-817129-5.00001-9 DOI
Schweizer, J., Jamieson, J. B., & Schneebeli, M. (2003). Snow avalanche formation. Reviews of Geophysics, 41(4). https://doi.org/10.1029/2002RG000123 DOI
Sirk, K. (2011). Ocena nevarnosti snežnih plazov na železniškem odseku Podbrdo - Hudajužna. (B.Sc. Thesis). Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani.
Stethem, C. (2013). Avalanches. In P. T. Bobrowsky (Ed.), Encyclopedia of natural hazards (pp. 31-34). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4 DOI
Stoffel, M., & Huggel, C. (2012). Effects of climate change on mass movements in mountain environments. Progress in Physical Geography, 36(3), 421-439. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133312441010 DOI
Strapazzoni, G., Schweizer, J., Chiambretti, I., Brodmann Maeder, M., Brugger, H., & Zafren, K. (2021). Effects of climate change on avalanche accidents and survival. Frontiers in Physiology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.639433 DOI
Suppasri, A., Maly, E., Kitamura, M., Syamsidik, Pescaroli, G., Alexander, D., & Imamura, F. (2021). Cascading disasters triggered by tsunami hazards: A perspective for critical infrastructure resilience and disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 66, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102597 DOI
Šegula, P. (1978). Nesreče v gorah. Ljubljana: Planinska zveza Slovenije.
Šegula, P. (1980). Nesreče v snežnih plazovih v sezoni 1979/1980. Alpinistični razgledi, 2(9), 19-25.Šegula, P. (1986). Sneg, led in plazovi: Priročnik za planince, smučarje in druge. Ljubljana: Planinska zveza Slovenije.
Šegula, P. (1986). Sneg, led in plazovi: Priročnik za planince, smučarje in druge. Ljubljana: Planinska zveza Slovenije.
Šegula, P. (1995). Sneg in plazovi - večjezični slovar. Ljubljana: Gorska reševalna služba pri Planinski zvezi Slovenije.
Šraj, M., Menih, M., & Bezak, N. (2016). Climate variability impact assessment on the flood risk in Slovenia. Physical Geography, 37(1), 73-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2016.1155389 DOI
Techel, F., Müller, K., & Schweizer, J. (2020). On the importance of snowpack stability, the frequency distribution of snowpack stability, and avalanche size in assessing the avalanche danger level. The Cryosphere, 14(10), 3503-3521. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3503-2020 DOI
Tubaldi, E., Macorini, L., Izzuddin, B. A., Manes, C., & Laio, F. (2017). A framework for probabilistic assessment of clear-water scour around bridge piers. Structural Safety, 69, 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2017.07.001 DOI
Turner II, B., Esler, K. J., Bridgewater, P., Tewksbury, J., Sitas, N., Abrahams, B., Chapin III, F. S., Chowdhury, R. R., Christie, P., Diaz, S., Firth, P., Knapp, C. N., Kramer, J., Leemans, R., Palmer, M., Pietri, D., … & Mooney, H. (2016). Socio-Environmental Systems (SES) research: what have we learned and how can we use this information in future research programs. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 19, 160-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2016.04.001 DOI
UNESCO. (1981). Avalanche Atlas: Illustrated International Avalanche Classification. Paris: UNESCO.
Valt, M., & Cianfarra, P. (2013). Climate change in Italian Alps: Analysis of snow precipitation, snow durations and avalanche activity. In F. Naaim-Bouvet, Y. Durand, & R. Lambert (Eds.), Proceedings of International Snow Science Workshop: A merging of theory and practice (pp. 1247-1250). Grenoble, Chamonix: ANENA, IRSTEA, Météo-France.
Volk, M. (2010). Snežni plazovi v Karavankah. (B.Sc. Thesis). Koper: Univerza na Primorskem.
Volk, M. (2011). Lavinski kataster in zemljevidi nevarnosti zaradi snežnih plazov s poudarkom na primerih z območja osrednjih Karavank. In M. Zorn, B. Komac, R. Ciglič, & M. Pavšek (Eds.), Neodgovorna odgovornost (pp. 103-109). Naravne nesreče (vol. 2). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789612545710 DOI
Volk Bahun, M. (2014). Spremljanje in napovedovanje naravnih nesreč na območju Srednjih Karavank. In M. Zorn, B. Komac, M. Pavšek, & R. Ciglič (Eds.), (Ne)prilagojeni (pp. 173-180). Naravne nesreče (vol. 3). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789612546762 DOI
Volk Bahun, M. (2016). Ocena in prikaz nevarnosti zaradi snežnih plazov. Ujma, 30, 209-218.
Volk Bahun, M. (2017). Modeliranje in prikazovanje nevarnosti zaradi snežnih plazov. In M. Zorn, B. Komac, R. Ciglič, & J. Tičar (Eds.), Trajnostni razvoj mest in naravne nesreče (pp. 145-154). Naravne nesreče (vol. 4). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789612549947 DOI
Volk Bahun, M. (2020). Mehanizmi pojavljanja snežnih plazov v slovenskih Alpah. (PhD Thesis). Koper: Univerza na Primorskem.
Volk Bahun, M., Hrvatin, M., & Komac, B. (2022). Določanje potencialnih območij proženja snežnih plazov z analizo relief. In M. Breg Valjavec, R. Ciglič, Š. Čonč, M. Geršič, D. Perko, & M. Zorn (Eds.), Preteklost in prihodnost (pp. 95-107). GIS v Sloveniji (vol. 16). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789610506683_07 DOI
Volk Bahun, M., Zorn, M., & Pavšek, M. (2018). Snežni plazovi v Triglavskem pogorju. In M. Zorn, P. Mikša, I. Lačen Benedičič, M. Ogrin, & A. M. Kunstelj (Eds.), Triglav 240 (pp. 147-156). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC. https://doi.org/10.3986/9789610500841 DOI
Vrhovec, T. (2002). Snežni plazovi. In B. Ušeničnik (Ed.), Nesreče in varstvo pred njimi (pp. 283-286). Ljubljana: Uprava RS za zaščito in reševanje.
Vrhovec, T., Kastelic, D., & Petkovšek, Z. (2006). Vreme in podnebje v gorah. Ljubljana: Tehniška založba Slovenije.
Vrhovec, T., & Mihelič, J. (1992). Plazovi v Julijskih Alpah v zimi 1990/91. Ujma, 6, 19-24.
Vrhovec, T., & Velkavrh, A. (1996). Pregled snežnih in lavinskih razmer pozimi 1995/96. Ujma, 10, 89-92. DOI
Vrhovec, T, & Velkavrh, A. (1997). Značilnosti vremena ob nesrečah s snežnimi plazovi v Sloveniji med letoma 1971 in 1996. Ujma, 11, 39-45.
Vrhovec, T., & Velkavrh, A. (2001). Največja debelina snežne odeje na Kredarici. Geografski vestnik, 73(2), 25-32.
Wamsler, C., Brink, E., & Rivera, C. (2013). Planning for climate change in urban areas: from theory to practice. Journal of Cleaner Production, 50(1), 68-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.12.008 DOI
Wever, N., Valero, C. V., & Fierz, C. (2016). Assessing wet snow avalanche activity using detailed physics based snowpack simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(11), 5732-5740. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068428 DOI
White, G. F. (Ed.). (1974). Natural hazards: local, national, global. New York: Oxford University Press.
WSL. (2000). Der Lawinenwinter 1999: Ereignisanalyse. Davos: Eidgenössisches Institut für Schnee- und Lawinenforschung.
Zorn, M., & Komac, B. (2011). Damage caused by natural disasters in Slovenia and globally between 1995 and 2010. Acta geographica Slovenica, 51(1), 7-41. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS51101 DOI


Geographia Polonica





Start page:


End page:


Resource type:


Detailed Resource Type:


Resource Identifier:

doi:10.7163/GPol.0244 ; 0016-7282 (print) ; 2300-7362 (online) ; 10.7163/GPol.0244


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

European Union. European Regional Development Fund ; Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure





Citation style: