Object structure

„Rewaloryzacja” centrum miasta: tendencje lokalizacyjne przedsiębiorstw technologicznych w skali mikro na przykładzie Warszawy = “Revalorisation” of the city centre: location trends among micro scale technology companies as exemplified by Warsaw


Przegląd Geograficzny T. 94 z. 3 (2022)


Smętkowski, Maciej : Autor Affiliation ORCID



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



24 cm

Subject and Keywords:

technology companies ; location factors ; startup ecosystem ; metropolisation ; Warsaw ; Poland


The main objective of the paper was to analyse the spatial distribution of technology companies in the city, as well as to identify factors influencing their location. Warsaw, which can be treated as a metropolis with a relatively well-developed startup ecosystem, was used as an example of the changes occurring in urban space as a result of the fourth technological revolution. The analyses showed that entities involved in the production and implementation of new technological solutions located their activities more often in the central part of the city than in the peripheral districts. Among the important factors for their location were first of all the features of the building, including in particular the availability of coworking space offered in modern office buildings. However, residential buildings as well as older office buildings were also popular. This may indicate that technology companies - often start-ups - are looking for locations with lower space rental costs, but providing appropriate urbanisation benefits related to, for example, catering (cafes) and good transport accessibility, in particular proximity to metro station. On the other hand, agglomeration effects related to proximity to customers were not local but city-wide. Similarly, the accessibility of an airport did not significantly affect the location preferences of Warsaw's technology companies.


Arieff, A., Grant, B., Szambelan, S.J., & Warburg, J. (2017). Rethinking the Corporate Campus. The Next Bay Area Workplace, SPUR Report.
Arauzo-Carod, J-M. (2021). Location determinants of high-tech firms: an intra-urban approach. Industry and Innovation, 28(10), 1225‑1248. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662716.2021.1929868 DOI
Atzema, O. (2001). Location and local networks of ICT firms in the Netherlands. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 92(3), 369‑378. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9663.00163 DOI
Bereitschaft, B. (2019). Are walkable places tech incubators? Evidence from Nebraska's 'Silicon Prairie'. Regional Studies, Regional Science, 6, 339‑356. https://doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2019.1620631 DOI
Castells, M. (1998). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture - The rise of network society. Oxford: Blackwell.
Chodkowska-Miszczuk, J., & Lewandowska, A. (2018) Kreowanie zrównoważonego transportu miejskiego na przykładzie Kopenhagi - wybrane aspekty. Prace Komisji Geografii Komunikacji PTG, 21(3), 45‑59. https://doi.org/10.4467/2543859XPKG.18.014.10139 DOI
Christou, L. (2021). Destination office: Reviving London's King's Cross tech hub. Design and Build Review, 62, 21‑24.
Cukier, D., Lyons, T.S., & Kon, F. (2016). Software Startup Ecosystems Evolution - The New York City Case Study. 2nd International Workshop on Software Startups, Trondheim. DOI
DME. (2007). Spatial Planning in Denmark. Ministry of the Environment. Copenhagen.
DPF. (2019). Map of the Polish AI. Digital Poland Foundation Report. Warszawa: Digital Poland Foundation.
Dudek-Mańkowska, S., Fuhrmann, M., Grochowski, M., & Zegar, T. (2012). Sektor kreatywny a przestrzenie publiczne w Warszawie. Mazowsze. Studia Regionalne, 11, 147‑157.
Florida, R., Adler, P., & Mellander, C. (2016). The City as Innovation Machine. Working Paper Series. Martin Prosperity Research. DOI
Florida, R., & Hathaway, I. (2018). The New Map of Entrepreneurship and Venture Capital, Rise of the Global Startup City. New York: NYU, School for Professional Studies.
Florida, R., & Mellander, C. (2017). Rise of the Startup City: The Changing Geography of the Venture Capital Financed Innovation. California Management Review, 59(1), 14‑38. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008125616683952 DOI
Gorzelak, G., & Smętkowski, M. (2012). Warsaw as a metropolis - successes and missed opportunities. Regional Science Policy & Practice, 4(1), 25‑45. DOI
Grochowski, M. (2010). Sektor kreatywny w Warszawie. Potencjał i warunki rozwoju. Creative Metropolises, Warszawa.
Guzman, J., & Stern, S. (2016). The state of American entrepreneurship: New estimates of the quantity and quality of entrepreneurship for 15 US States, 1988‑2014. Working Paper 22095. Pobrane z: http://www.nber.org/papers/w22095 (22.09.2021). DOI
Hall, P. (1999). The Future of Cities. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 23, 173‑185. DOI
Haltiwanger, J., Hurst, E., Miranda, J., & Schoar, A. (2017). Measuring Entrepreneurial Business. NBER Studies in Income and Wealth, 75. DOI
Hawkings, R. (2004). Looking beyond the dot com bubble: exploring the form and function of business models in the electronic marketplace. W: Preissl, B., Bouwman, H., Steinfield, Ch. (red.), E-Life after the Dot Com Bus. Heidelberg: Physica. DOI
Hoover, E.M., & Vernon, R. (1962). Anatomy of a Metropolis. Harvard University Press.
Hutton, T. (2010). The new economy of the inner city. Restructuring, regeneration and dislocation in the twenty-first-century metropolis. Routledge.
Jinliao, H., & Xianjin, H. (2016). Agglomeration, Differentiation and Creative Milieus: A Socioeconomic Analysis of Location Behaviour of Creative Enterprises in Shanghai. Urban Policy and Research, 36(1), 79‑96. https://doi.org/10.1080/08111146.2016.1235035 DOI
Katz, B., & Wagner, J. (2014). The Rise of Innovation Districts: A new geography of innovation in America. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Kilar, W. (2016). Technopolie jako miejsca lokalizacji korporacji informatycznych. Przedsiębiorczość - Edukacja, 12, 114‑122. DOI
Kiroff, L. (2019). Nexus between creative industries and the built environment: Creative placemaking in inner Auckland. Frontier of Architectural Research, 9, 119‑137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2019.08.004 DOI
Komninos, N. (2008). Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks. London and New York: Routledge. DOI
Micek, G. (2017). Bliskość geograficzna przedsiębiorstw zaawansowanego przemysłu i usług a przepływy wiedzy. Kraków: IGiGP UJ.
Oakey, R., Groen, A., Cook, G., & van der Sijde, P. (red.). (2009). New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium Volume VII: The Production and Distribution of Knowledge. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. DOI
Olley, D., Perrault, R., & Motta, E. (2020). Artificial Intelligence: How knowledge is created, transferred, and used. Trends in China, Europe, and the United States. New York: Elsevier.
Pitchforth, J., Nelson-White, E., van den Helder, M., & Oosting, W. (2020). The work environment pilot: An experiment to determine the optimal office design for a technology company. PLoS ONE, 15(5). DOI
Sassen, S. (1991). The global city. Princetown University Press.
Schearmur, R., Ananian, P., Lachapelle, U., Parra-Lokhorst, M., Paulhiac, F., Tremblay, D., & Wycliffe-Jones, A. (2021). Towards a post-COVID geography of economic activity: Using probability spaces to decipher Montreal's changing workscapes. Urban Studies, 59(10), 2053‑2075. https://doi.org/10.1177/00420980211022895 DOI
Schwab, K. (2018). Czwarta rewolucja przemysłowa. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Studio EMKA.
Skog, A., Lewan, M., Karlström, M., Morgulis-Yakushev, S., Lu, Y., & Teigland, R. (2016). Chasing the Tale of the Unicorn - A study of Sweden's misty Meadowi, Center for Strategy and Competitiveness. Stockholm: School of Economics Institute for Research.
Smętkowski, M., Celińska-Janowicz, D., & Wojnar, K. (2019). Nowe przestrzenie gospodarcze metropolii. Struktura, funkcje i powiązania obszarów biznesu w Warszawie. Warszawa: Wyd. Naukowe Scholar.
Smętkowski, M., Celińska-Janowicz, D., & Wojnar, K. (2021). Location patterns of advanced producer service firms in Warsaw: A tale of agglomeration in the era of creativity. Cities - The International Journal of Urban Policy and Planning, 108, 1‑14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102937 DOI
Spencer, G.M. (2015). Knowledge Neighbourhoods: Urban Form and Evolutionary Economic Geography, Regional Studies, 49(5), 883‑898. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2015.1019846 DOI
Startup Genome. (2021). The global startup Ecosystem report. Pobrano z: www.startupgenome.com (20.10.2021).
Stehlin, J. (2016). The PostIndustrial "Shop Floor": Emerging Forms of Gentrification in San Francisco's Innovation Economy. Antipode, 48(2), 474‑493. https://doi.org/10.1111/anti.12199 DOI
Stryjakiewicz, T. (2010). Location factors of the creative and knowledge intensive industries in European metropolitan regions. Geograficky Casopis - Geographical Journal, 62(1), 3‑19.
Śleszyński, P. (2006). Przedsiębiorstwa w przestrzeni Warszawy, Atlas Warszawy, z. 9, Warszawa: IGiPZ PAN.
Taylor, P.J., & Derruder, B. (2016). World City Network. A global urban analysis. Taylor&Francis. DOI
Wilk, W. (2001). Czynniki lokalizacji i rozmieszczenie wybranych usług w Warszawie. Warszawa: Uniwersytet Warszawski.
Włodarczyk, D. (2012). Smart growth and urban economic development: connecting economic development and land-use planning using the example of high-tech firms. Environment & Planning A, 44(5), 1255‑1269. https://doi.org/10.1068/a44450 DOI
Zukin, S. (2020). Seeing like a city: how tech became urban. Theory and Society, 49, 941‑964. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-020-09410-4 DOI
Ženka, J., Krticka, L., Paszová, L., Pundová, T., Rudincová, K., Št'astná, S., Svetlíková, V., & Matula, J. (2021). Micro-Geographies of Information and Communication Technology Firms in a Shrinking Medium-Sized Industrial City of Ostrava (Czechia). Land, 10, 695. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070695 DOI


Przegląd Geograficzny





Start page:


End page:


Resource type:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

doi:10.7163/PrzG.2022.3.4 ; 0033-2143 (print) ; 2300-8466 (on-line) ; 10.7163/PrzG.2022.3.4


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, sygn.: Cz.181, Cz.3136, Cz.4187 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure ; European Union. European Regional Development Fund





Citation style: