The European Union (EU) territorial development and cohesion have been supported by European institutions for decades, but they currently face a critical moment: the COVID-19 pandemic and European coordination gaps have to be added to previously-existing difficulties, such as the growing climate-related and demographic challenges, and the wave of Euroscepticism, nationalism and populism. Viruses do not recognise borders, but the EU is still divided between those thinking that the economy should prevail over politics and those thinking otherwise. European citizens living in border areas know very well that we need a common approach (and a stronger commitment) to the preservation of our values and rights, as well as to the definitive positioning of the EU as a global player. Integration starts at the bottom and moves across borders. The legacy of cohesion and territorial stability that the EU leaves for future generations will depend on how it protects and strengthens cross-border cooperation at this stage.
AEBR (2004). Towards a new community legal instrument facilitating public law based trans-European co-operation among territorial authorities in the European Union. Summary Position Paper. Gronau: Association of European Border Regions.
AEBR (2017). b-solutions project. Retrieved from https://www.b-solutionsproject.com/
AEBR (2020). b-solutions: Solving Border Obstacles. A Compendium of 43 Cases. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2776/239689
AEBR (2020). Annex. b-solutions: Solving Border Obstacles. A Compendium of 43 Cases. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2776/36819
AEBR (2020, May 19). Newsletter Spring 2020. "Covid-19" Special Edition. Association of European Border Regions. Retrieved from https://us9.campaign-archive.com/?u=1ac1f186b0d56a48c4d7dfc03&id=2972e850d2
AEBR (2020, August 3). Insight #2. Association of European Border Regions. Retrieved from https://us9.campaign-archive.com/?u=1ac1f186b0d56a48c4d7dfc03&id=b36010cdaa
Alliance (2020). European Cross-Border Citizens' Alliance. Borders at the Heart of Europe of Tomorrow. Association of European Border Regions, Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, Mission Opérationnelle Transfrontalière. Retrieved from http://www.espaces-transfrontaliers.org/en/activites-ue/european-cross-border-citizens-alliance/
Britannica (2020). Berlin West Africa Conference. Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Berlin-West-Africa-Conference
Cebrián, J. L., & González, F. (2001). El futuro ya no es lo que era - una conversación [The future is no longer what it used to be]. Madrid: Aguilar.
Cohesion Alliance (2020, July 15). Europe's recovery will fail without a strong cohesion policy and a real partnership among EU, national, regional and local actors. European Committee of the Regions. Retrieved from: https://cor.europa.eu/en/news/Pages/Europe-recovery-will-fail-without-strongcohesion.aspx
COM (2015-2017). Cross-border Review. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/policy/cooperation/european-territorial/cross-border/review/
COM (2017). Boosting Growth and Cohesion in EU Border Regions. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 29 September 2017, COM(2017)0534 final.
COM (2017). White Paper on the Future of Europe. Reflections and scenarios for the EU27 by 2025. European Commission. COM(2017)2025.
COM (2018). Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a mechanism to resolve legal and administrative obstacles in a cross-border context. European Commission, COM(2018)373 final.
COM (2020). Proposal for a Regulation of the European parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013 as regards exceptional additional resources and implementing arrangements under the Investment for growth and jobs goal to provide assistance for fostering crisis repair in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and preparing a green, digital and resilient recovery of the economy (REACT-EU). European Commission, COM(2020) 451 final.
COM (2020). Commission welcomes the political agreement on the Interreg Regulation. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/12/12-02-2020-commission-welcomes-the-political-agreement-on-the-interreg-regulation
COM (2020). Interreg A - Cross-border cooperation. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/policy/cooperation/european-territorial/cross-border/#8
CoR (2018). The Cohesion Alliance. European Committee of the Regions. Retrieved from https://cor.europa.eu/en/engage/Pages/cohesion-alliance.aspx
CoR (2020). Register of European Groupings of Territorial Cooperation. Retrieved from https://portal.cor.europa.eu/egtc/CoRActivities/Pages/welcome.aspx
CoE (1980). European Outline Convention on Trans-Frontier Cooperation between Territorial Communities or Authorities. Treaty No. 106 signed by the Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers in Madrid on 21 May 1980 and entered into force on 22 December 1981. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/106
EC (1990). Notice C(90) 1562/3 to the Member States, laying down guidelines for operational programmes which Member States are invited to establish in the framework of a Community initiative concerning border areas (Interreg). European Communities, 90/C 215/04.
EC (1992). Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on 7 February 1992. European Communities, 92/C 191/01.
EP (2020, July 22). Motion for a Resolution to wind up the debate on the statements by the European Council and the Commission pursuant to Rule 132(2) of the Rules of Procedure on the conclusions of the extraordinary European Council meeting of 17-21 July 2020. 2020/2732 (RSP).
EU (2006). Regulation (EU) No 1082/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on a European grouping of territorial cooperation (EGTC). Official Journal of the European Union, L 210/19-24.
EU (2011). Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 on the application of patients' rights in cross-border healthcare. Official Journal of the European Union, L 88/45-65.
EU (2013). Regulation (EU) No 1302/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 1082/2006 on a European grouping of territorial cooperation (EGTC) as regards the clarification, simplification and improvement of the establishment and functioning of such groupings. Official Journal of the European Union, L 347/303-319.
EUCO (2020). Special meeting of the European Council on 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 July 2020 - Conclusions. European Council, EUCO 10/20, CO EUR 8 CONCL 4.
EUCO (2020). Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2020/2093 of 17 December 2020 laying down the multiannual financial framework for the years 2021 to 2027. Official Journal of the European Union L 433 I/11-22, 22 December 2020.
EUCO (2020). Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2020/2094 of 14 December 2020 establishing a European Union Recovery Instrument to support the recovery in the aftermath of the COVID-19 crisis. Official Journal of the European Union L 433 I/23-27, 22 December 2020.
EU Observer (2020, July 24). Top EU officials urge MEPs give quick budget-deal approval. EU Observer. Retrieved from https://euobserver.com/economic/149020
Euractiv (2020, May 28). Cohesion becomes central to EU recovery package. Euractiv. Retrieved from https://www.euractiv.com/section/economy-jobs/news/cohesion-becomes-central-to-eu-recovery-package/
Event 201 (2019). Public-private cooperation for pandemic preparedness and response. A call to action. Event 201. Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, World Economic Forum and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/recommendations.html
Guillermo Ramírez, M. (2019). Introduction to the panel on Trust Building. AEBR Annual Conference 2019, Dresden City Hall, 24 October 2019.
Guillermo Ramírez, M. (2020). Europe is integrated within its borders. Newsletter of the Iberian-American and European Academy of Yuste Foundation, 6. Retrieved from https://www.fundacionyuste.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/02-TRIBUNA-ABIERTA-MartinvGuillermo-B06-v-in.pdf
Inglesby, T., & Toner, E. (2018, September 19). Opinion: Our lack of pandemic preparedness could prove deadly. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/our-lack-of-pandemic-preparedness-could-prove-deadly/2018/09/19/0d7b235c-b13e-11e8-a20b5f4f84429666_story.html
Martínez-Bascuñán, M. (2020, May 17). Globalización de geometría variable. El País. Retrieved from https://elpais.com/opinion/2020-05-16/globalizacion-de-geometria-variable.html
Monnet, J. (1978). Memoirs. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/MonnetJeanMemoirs/mode/2up
NTI (2019). Global Health Security Index. Building Collective Action and Accountability. Baltimore: Nuclear Threat Initiative, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved from https://www.ghsindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/2019-Global-Health-Security-Index.pdf
OECD (2020). Health Expenditure. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/health-expenditure.htm
Sloterdijk, P. (2020, June 12). Co-Immunism in the age of Pandemics and Climate Change. German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk speaks with Noema's editor-in-chief, Nathan Gardels. Noema Magazine, Berggruen Institute. Retrieved from https://www.noemamag.com/co-immunism-an-ethos-forour-age-of-climate-change/
TA2030 (2020). Territorial Agenda 2030. A future for all places. Adopted at the Informal meeting of Ministers responsible for Spatial Planning and Territorial Development and/or Territorial Cohesion, 1 December 2020, Leipzig. Retrieved from https://territorialagenda.eu/home.html
WHO (2009). Recommendations for Good Practice in Pandemic Preparedness. Identified through evaluation of the response to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/128060/e94534.pdf
WHO (2020). Global Health Expenditure Database. World Health Organisation. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/nha/database/
Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.
May 12, 2021
May 11, 2021
Klatt, Martin Winkler, Ingo
Leśniak-Johann, Małgorzata Raczyk, Andrzej
Smas, Lukas Schmitt, Peter