RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: Immigrant social inclusion in Europe: A descriptive investigation


Balourdos, Dionyssis : Autor ; Petraki, Maria : Autor

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Europa XXI 37 (2019)



Place of publishing:



Każdy numer posiada własny tytuł.

Type of object:



This paper represents an empirical investigation into the risk of poverty or social exclusion facing immigrants across Europe. The methodological approach is based on the set of ‘Zaragoza indicators’, in the domain of social inclusion, together with some proposed additional ones: income distribution and monetary poverty, material deprivation, in-work poverty, child poverty and risk of poverty or social exclusion. The main research question concerns whether immigrants/third-country nationals and nationals constitute two rather distinct groups in terms of exposure to poverty or social exclusion. Mainly using data from the EU-SILC Survey, we find that third-country nationals are severely disadvantaged in most countries, and are occasionally exposed to risks multiple times higher than nationals. There are European countries with similar immigrant populations in which these immigrants experience less favorable outcomes compared to other populations in other countries. Comparative analysis allows us to test the significance of different welfare systems in protecting vulnerable groups such as immigrants, using Eurostat statistics and the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX). In a cross-country analysis, taking demographic and macro-economic differences into account, results show that the impact of social expenditure on poverty is not significant when it comes to protecting third-country nationals.


Anderson, E. M., d'Orey, A. J., Duvendack, M., & Espositoa, L. (2018). Does government spending affect income poverty? A meta-regression analysis. World Development, 103, 60-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.006
Balourdos, D., & Petraki, M. (2019). Understanding Family Demographic Processes & In-Work Poverty. Paper presented at International Conference on 'Local Democratic Challenges: Environment, Inequalities and Resilient Cultural Mediation in Fragile/Transitional Communities'. Chania, Crete, Greece, 09-11 September.
Bergh, A. (2014). Explaining Cross-country Differences in Labor Market Gaps between Immigrants and Natives in the OECD. IFN Working Paper, 1036. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers. cfm?abstract_id=2480517
Bilgili, Ö., T. Huddelston, A., & Joki, A. L. (2015). The Dynamics between integration policies and Outcomes: Synthesis of the Literature. Retrieved from http://www.migpolgroup.com/portfolio/the-dynamics-between-integration-policies-and- outcomes-a- synthesis-of-the-literature
Caminada, K., & Goudswaard, K. (2009). Effectiveness of poverty reduction in the EU: A descriptive analysis. Poverty and Public Policy, 1(2), 1-49. https://doi.org/10.2202/1944-2858.1023
Caminada, K., Goudswaard, K., & Koster, F. (2012). Social income transfers and poverty: a cross-country analysis for OECD countries. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21(2), 115-126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2011.00815.x
Chzhen, Y. (2014). Child poverty and material deprivation in the European Union during the Great Recession. Innocenti Working Paper, 2014-06. Florence: UNICEF.
Chzhen, Y., Bruckauf, Z., & Toczydlowska, E. (2017). Sustainable Development Goal 1.2: Multidimensional child poverty in the European Union. Working Paper, 2017-07. Florence: UNICEF. https://doi.org/10.1332/175982718X15154249173514
EC (2014). Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/librarydoc/common-basic-principles-for-immigrant-integration-policy-in-the-eu
Ette, A., & Faist, T. (2007). The Europeanization of national policies and politics of immigration: Research, question and concepts. In T., Faist & A., Ette (Eds.) The Europeanization of national policies and politics of immigration. Between autonomy and the European Union (pp. 3-31). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230800717_1
Eurofound (2017). In-work poverty in the EU. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
EC (2008). Joint Report on Social protection and social inclusion 2008. Social inclusion, pensions, healthcare and long-term care. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Eurostat (2017). Migrant integration, 2017 edition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Eurostat (2020). Migration and migrant population statistics. Statistics explained. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_ statistics
Favell, A., & Recchi, E. (2011). Social Mobility and Spatial Mobility. In A., Favell & V., Guiraudon (Eds.) Sociology of the European Union (pp. 50-75). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-230-34390-0_3
Findlay, A., Geddes, A., & McCollum, D. (2010). International migration and recession. Scottish Geographical Journal, 126(4), 299-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/14702541.2010.549346
Förster, M. F., & Mira D'Ercole, M. (2005). Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s. Working Paper, 22. Paris: OECD Social, Employment and Migration. https://doi.org/10.1787/1815199X
Fromentin, V., Damette, O., & Zou, B. (2017). The Global Economic Crisis and the Effect of Immigrant Workers on Native‐Born Employment in Europe. The World Economy, 40(6), 1068-1088. https://doi.org/10.1111/twec.12394
Geddes, A. (2003). The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe. London: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446280492
Gilmartin, M., & Dagg, J. (2018). Immigrant integration and settlement services in Ireland. Project Report. Irish Research Council.
Grzymala-Kazlowska, A., & Phillimore, J. (2017). Introduction: rethinking integration. New perspectives on adaptation and settlement in the era of super-diversity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1), 179-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1341706
Guio, A. C., Gordon, D., Najera, H., & Pomati, M. (2017). Revising the EU material deprivation variables. 2017 edition. Eurostat Statistical Working Papers. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Guio, A. C., Gordon, D., Marlier, E., Najera, H., & Pomati, M. (2018). Towards an EU measure of child deprivation. Child Indicators Research, 11(3), 835-860. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9491-6
Guio, A. C., Marlier, E., Vandenbroucke, F., & Verbunt, P. (2020). Micro-and macro-drivers of child deprivation in 31 European countries. Eurostat Statistical Working Papers. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Hagelund, A., & Kavli, H. C. (2017). Integration. In B., Greve (Ed.). Handbook of Social Policy Evaluation (pp. 383-402). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785363245.00028
Hooijer, G., & Picot, G. (2015). European welfare states and migrant poverty: The Institutional Determinants of Disadvantage. Comparative Political Studies, 48(14), 1879-1904. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414015597508
Huddleston, T., Bilgili, Ö., Joki, A. L., & Vankova, Z. (2015). Migrant integration policy index 2015. Barcelona/Brussels: CIDOB, MPG.
Huddleston, T., Niessen, J., & Tjaden, J. T. (2013). Using EU indicators of immigrant Integration: Final Report for Directorate-General for Home Affairs. Brussels: Home Affairs, European Commission.
Huddleston, T., Niessen, J., Ni Chaoimh, E., & White, E. (2011). Migrant Integration Policy Index. British Council and Migration Policy Group.
IOM (2012). IOM and migrant integration. Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.
Kaczmarek-Firth, A., & Dupré, D. (2018). Measuring material deprivation at individual level and measuring children material deprivation. Working Paper, 24. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Conference of European Statistics. Expert meeting on measuring poverty and inequality 29-30 November 2018, Austria.
Kasimis, C., & Papadopoulos, A. G. (2012). Employment and occupational mobility of migrants in two local labour markets [in Greek]. In C., Kasimis & A. G., Papadopoulos (Eds.) Migrants in Greece: employment and integration in local societies (pp. 289-326). Athens: Alexandreia.
Klarenbeek, L. (2019). Relational Integration: A Response to Willem Schinkel. Comparative Migration Studies, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-019-0126-6
Marlier, E., Atkinson, A. B., Cantillon, B., & Nolan, B. (2007). The EU and Social Inclusion: Facing the Challenges. Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861348845.001.0001
Martiniello, M. (2006). Towards a coherent approach to immigrant integration policy(ies) in the European Union. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dev/38295165.pdf
Michailakis, D., & Reich, W. (2009). Dilemmas of inclusive education. ALTER, European Journal of Disability Research, 3(1), 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alter.2008.10.001https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alter.2008.10.001
Miežienė, R., & Krutulienė, S. (2019). The Impact of Social Transfers on Poverty Reduction in EU Countries. Baltic Journal of European Studies, 9, 157-175. https://doi.org/10.1515/bjes-2019-0009
OECD/EU (2018). Settling In 2018: Indicators of Immigrant Integration. Paris, Brussels: OECD Publishing. European Union. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264307216-en
Oliver, C., & Gidley, B. (2015). Integration of Migrants in Europe. Centre on Migration, Policy, and Society. Retrieved from https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/OSIFE15-Report.pdf
Otto, A. (2018). Social expenditure, social rights, and benefit receipt as indicators of welfare state generosity: Three peas in a pod, or a different kettle of fish altogether? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 38(9/10), 851-867. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-02-2018-0022
Papadopoulos, A. G. (2016, January 8). From migration crisis to refugee crisis in Europe: Securitization priorities vs. what? Hellenic Observatory Seminar, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Penninx, R. (2019). Problems of and solutions for the study of Immigrant Integration. Comparative Migration Studies, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-019-0122-x
Penninx, R., & Garcés-Mascareñas, B. (2016). The Concept of integration as an analytical tool and as a policy concept. In: B., Garcés-Mascareñas, & R., Penninx (Eds.). Integration processes and policies in Europe: Contexts, Levels and Actors (pp. 11-29). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21674-4_2
Phillimore, J. (2012.) Implementing integration in the UK; lessons for theory, policy and practice. Policy and Politics, 40(4), 525-545. https://doi.org/10.1332/030557312X643795
Recchi, E. (2016). The Citizenship Gap in European Societies: Conceptualizing, Measuring and Comparing 'Migration Neutrality' across the EU. International Migration, 54(6), 181-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12292
Römer, F. (2017). Generous to all or 'insiders only'? The relationship between welfare state generosity and immigrant welfare rights. Journal of European Social Policy, 27(2), 173-196. https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928717696441
Ruhs, M., Tamas, K., & Palme, J. (2019). Bridging the Gaps: Linking Research to Public Debates and Policy-Making on Migration and Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198834557.001.0001
Scipioni, M., & Urso, G. (2017). Migration policy indexes. Ispra: JRC.
SPC (2018). Annual Report 2018. Review of the social protection performance monitor and development in social protection policies. Report on key social challenges and main messages. Social Protection Committee. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2018.
TARKI (2011). Child Well-being in the European Union: Better Monitoring Instruments for Better Policies. Budapest: TARKI Social Research Institute.
Tilly, C. (2011). The impact of the economic crisis on international migration: a review. Work, Employment & Society, 25(4), 675-692. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017011421799
Waters, M. C., & Pineau, M. G. (Eds.) (2015). The Integration of Immigrants into American Society. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/21746
Wiesbrock, A. (2013). Sources of law, regulatory processes and enforcement mechanisms in EU migration policy: The slow decline of national sovereignty. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 20(3), 423-441. https://doi.org/10.1177/1023263X1302000306
Zetter, R., Griffiths, D., Sigona, N., Flynn, D., Pasha, T., & Beynon, R. (2006). Immigration, social cohesion and social capital: What are the links? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.


Europa XXI



Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:141360 ; 1429-7132 ; 10.7163/Eu21.2019.37.7


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at:

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



Object collections:

Last modified:

Mar 25, 2021

In our library since:

Sep 30, 2020

Number of object content hits:


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:




Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information