RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: The role of virtual space in ensuring ‘fair access’ to banking services –results of empirical research conducted in the Polish SME sector


Szczepaniec, Marek : Autor ORCID ; Jurkiewicz, Tomasz : Autor ORCID

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Europa XXI 39 (2020 )



Place of publishing:



29 cm

Type of object:



fair access ; internet bakning ; SME ; spatial justice ; traditional banking ; Virtual space ; The aim of this article is to present results of long-term empirical research on the changing behavior of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Poland in the context of spatial exclusion and spatial ‘justice’. Between 2007 and 2015, the authors conducted cyclical research on the financial behavior of SMEs in Poland on large samples. The scope of research on traditional and virtual space covered mainly: the criteria for selecting a bank for current service and the use of various banking services in particular distribution channels. In the researched period, the percentage of indications to convenient location as the most important factor for selecting a bank dropped from 29% to 16%. In the entire period under research, the highest percentage of indications to convenient location as the most important factor for selecting a bank was recorded in the micro enterprises sector. The percentage of entrepreneurs’ indications of fees and commissions as the most important factor in choosing a bank increase from 28% to 36%. Price parameters became the most important factor of bank selection in the SME sector. Virtual space was used primarily to distribute less complex banking services (checking the account balance and viewing the history of operations on the account, as well as to make transfers). In the case of more complex products, such as deposits or loans, traditional banking branches were preferred. In contrast to the results of the American research (Degryse & Ongena, 2002), in Poland there was no impact of the distance between the company and the bank branch on the loan utilization rates and the loan refusal rates. The research has shown that the virtual space equalizes the opportunities, facilitates business operations, contributes to a drop in prices and improvement in quality of the offered products and services, and renders the access to products and services fairer.


Agarwal, S., & Hauswald, R. (2010). Distance and Private Information in Lending. Review of Financial Studies, 23(7), 2757-2788. https://doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhq001
Arbore, A., & Ordanini, A. (2006). Broadband divide among SMEs - The role of size, location and outsourcing strategies. International Small Business Journal, 24(1), 83-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242606059781
Bach, M., Zoroja, J., & Vukšić V. (2013). Determinants of firms' digital divide: A review of recent research. Procedia Technology, 9, 120-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2013.12.013
Batorski, D. (2009). Wykluczenie cyfrowe w Polsce. In D., Grodzka (Ed.). Społeczeństwo informacyjne (pp. 223-249). Studia BAS, 3(19). Warsaw: BAS.
Berger, A. N., & Udell, G. F. (2002). Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: the Importance of Bank Organizational Structure. Economic Journal, 112(477), F32-F53. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00682
Berger, A., & DeYoung, R. (2006). Technological Progress and the Geographic Expansion of the Banking Industry. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 38(6), 1483-1513. https://doi.org/10.17016/FEDS.2002.31
Boyne, G. M. (1991). Territorial justice: A review of theory and evidence. Political Geography Quarterly, 10(3), 263-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/0260-9827(91)90038-V
Brevoort, K., & Hannan, T. (2006). Commercial Lending and Distance: Evidence from Community Reinvestment Act Data. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 38(8), 1991-2012. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.593801
CC (2002). The supply of banking services by clearing banks to small and medium-sized enterprises. A report on the supply of banking services by clearing banks to small and medium-sized enterprises within the UK. Competition Commission.
Degryse, H., & Ongena, S. (2002). Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition. Journal of Finance, 60, 213-266. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2005.00729.x
Dell'Ariccia, G. (2001). Asymmetric information and the structure of the banking industry. European Economic Review, 45(10), 1957-1980. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2921(00)00085-4
Deloitte (2018). Digital Banking Maturity Report 2018. Warsaw: Deloitte.
Denton, L., & Chan. A. K. K. (1991). Bank Selection Criteria of Multiple Bank Users in Hong Kong. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 9(5), 23-34. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329110007129
Devlin, J. F. (2002). Customer knowledge and choice criteria in retail banking. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 10, 273-290. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254022000014541
Devlin, J., & Gerrard, P. (2005). A study of customer choice criteria for multiple bank users. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 12(4), 297-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2004.10.004
European Commission (2013). Guide to the application of the European Union rules on state aid, public procurement and the internal market to services of general economic interest, and in particular to social services of general interest. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/overview/new_guide_eu_rules_procurement_en.pdf
Felici, R., & Pagnini, M. (2008). Distance, Bank Heterogeneity and Entry in Local Banking Markets. Journal of Industrial Economics, 56(3), 500-534. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6451.2008.00357.x
Forman, C. (2005). The Corporate Digital Divide: Determinants of Internet Adoption. Management Science, 51(4), 641-654. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1040.0343
Galliano, D., & Roux, P. (2008). Organisational motives and spatial effects in Internet adoption and intensity of use: evidence from French industrial firms. Annals of Regional Science, 42(2), 425-448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-007-0157-z
Grimes, A., Ren, C., & Stevens, P. (2012). The need for speed: impacts of internet connectivity on firm productivity. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 37(2), 187-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11123-011-0237-z
Hegerty, S. (2016). Commercial bank locations and 'banking deserts': a statistical analysis of Milwaukee and Buffalo. Annals of Regional Science, 56(1), 253-271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-015-0736-3
Hinson, R. E., Osarenkhoe, A., & Okoe, A. F. (2013). Determinants of Bank Selection: A Study of Undergraduate Students in the University of Ghana. Journal of Service Science and Management, 6, 197-205. https://doi.org/10.4236/jssm.2013.63021
Katitcioglu, S. T., Tumer, M., & Kilinc, C. (2011). Bank Selection Criteria in the Banking Industry: An Empirical Investigation from Customers in Romanian Cities. African Journal of Business Management, 5(14), 51-58. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM11.408
Kaynak, E., Kucukemiroglu, O., & Odabasi, Y. (1991). Commercial Bank Selection in Turkey. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 9(4), 30-39. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329110004249
KNF (2019). Dane miesięczne sektora bankowego - lipiec 2019. Warsaw: Komisja Nadzoru Finansowego. Retrieved from https://www.knf.gov.pl/
Komornicki, T., & Ciołek, D. (2017). Territorial Capital in Poland. In J., Bradley & J., Zaucha (Eds.). Territorial Cohesion: A missing link between economic growth and welfare. Lessons from the Baltic Tiger (pp. 93-146). Gdańsk: University of Gdańsk.
Komornicki, T., Zaucha, J., Szejgiec, B., & Wiśniewski, R. (2015). Powiązania eksportowe gospodarki lokalnej w warunkach zmiennej koniunktury - analiza przestrzenna. Warsaw: Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS.
Krishnamurthy, P. (2015). Banking Deregulation, Local Credit Supply, and Small-Business Growth. Journal of Law & Economics, 58(4), 935-967. https://doi.org/10.1086/684489
Labrianidis, L., & Kalogeressis, T. (2006). The digital divide in Europe's rural enterprises. European Planning Studies, 14(1), 23-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310500339109
Leyshon, A., & Thrift, N. (1996). Financial exclusion and the shifting boundaries of the financial system. Environment and Planning A, 28, 1150-1156. https://doi.org/10.1068/a281150
Leyshon, A., French, S., & Signoretta, P. (2008). Financial Exclusion and the Geography of Bank and Building Society Branch Closure in Britain. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 33(4), 447-465. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2008.00323.x
NBP (2008). Development of the financial system in Poland in 2007. Warsaw: National Bank of Poland. Retrieved from https://www.nbp.pl/en/systemfinansowy/fsd_2007.pdf
NBP (2017). Financial System in Poland in 2015. Warsaw: National Bank of Poland. Retrieved from https://www.nbp.pl/en/systemfinansowy/fsd_2015.pdf
PARP (2018). Report on the state of the SMEs sector in Poland. Warsaw: PARP.
Peterson, M. A., & Rajan, R. G. (2002). Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending. Journal of Finance, 57, 2533-2570. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6261.00505
Quentin, A., & Morange, M. (2018). Spatial Justice, Critical Thinking and Normativity in the Social Sciences. Justice spatiale, spatial justice, 7, pp. 22. Retrieved from https://www.jssj.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/JSSJ12_MORANGEQUENTIN_VA.pdf
Rauhut, D. (2017). A Note on Territorial Justice. A paper prepared for the 57th conference of the European Regional Science Association, 29th August - 1st September 2017.
Saleh, M. S., Rosman, M. R. M., & Nani, N. K. (2013). Bank Selection Criteria in a Customers' Perspective. Journal of Business and Management, 7(6), 15-20. https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-0761520
Sinkula, J. M., & Lawtor, L. (1988). Bank Characteristics and Customer Bank Choice: How Important are Important Measures. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 3(3), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1300/J090v03n03_11
Soja, E. W. (2009). The city and spatial justice. Justice spatiale, spatial justice, 1, pp. 5. Retrieved from https://www.jssj.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/JSSJ1-1en4.pdf
Świątek, D., Komornicki, T., & Siłka, P. (2013). Services of General Interest: Empirical Evidence from Case Studies of the SeGI Project. Europa XXI, 23, 105-130. https://doi.org/10.7163/Eu21.2013.23.6
Ta, H. P., & Har, K. Y. (2000). A Study of Bank Selection Decisions in Singapore Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 18(4), 170-180. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652320010349058
Talen, E., & Anselin, L. (1998). Assessing spatial equity: an evaluation of measures of accessibility to public playgrounds. Environment and Planning A, 30, 595-613. https://doi.org/10.1068/a300595
Tumbull, P. W., & Gibbs, M. L. (1989). The Selection of Banks and Banking Services - Among Corporate Customers in South Africa. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 7(5), 36-39. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652328910134662
Xue, M., Lorin, M. H., & Pei-yu, Ch. (2011). Determinants and Outcomes of Internet Banking Adoption. Management Science, 57(2), 291-307. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1100.1187
Zaucha, J., Brodzicki, T., Ciołek, D., Komornicki, T., Mogiła, Z., Szlachta, J., & Zaleski, J. (2015). Terytorialny wymiar wzrostu i rozwoju. Spójność, potencjały i użyteczność. Warsaw: Difin.
Zineldin, M. (1995). Bank-company interactions and relationships: some empirical evidence. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 13(2), 30-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329510078677
Zineldin, M. (1996). Bank-corporate client 'partnership' relationship: benefits and life cycle. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 14(3), 14-22. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329610113135


Europa XXI



Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:141352 ; 1429-7132 (print) ; 2300-8547 (online) ; 10.7163/Eu21.2019.39.2


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



Object collections:

Last modified:

Jul 13, 2021

In our library since:

Sep 30, 2020

Number of object content hits:


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:




Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information