Object structure

The Needs of Youth and Spatial Justice. How the Inclusion of Youth Preferences Can Support Targeted Regional Policies


Europa XXI 37 (2019)


Kulawczuk, Przemysław : Autor ORCID ; Poszewiecki, Andrzej : Autor ORCID ; Szczęch, Adam : Autor ORCID



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



Każdy numer posiada własny tytuł.

Type of object:


Subject and Keywords:

migration ; policy change management ; regional policy ; spatial justice ; youth policy ; youth survey


Euroregion Baltic faces strong depopulation pressure, with Poland and Lithuania both experiencing marked population declines, especially in rural areas, in the last 20 years – thanks to immigration abroad. Internal immigration to these countries’ cities is also taking place. While Germany, Sweden, Russia and Denmark have achieved temporary improvements in population indicators, this was thanks to their willingness to take in war refugees – a factor therefore incidental in nature, and not impacting upon an overall trend seeing people move out of rural areas in large numbers. With a view to this challenge being addressed in a more permanent way, research described here assessed whether the introduction of youth-policy measures might allow for better revamping of regional policies so as to persuade young people to remain in their regions. An assumption underpinning this work was that departure from a region reflects deficits in spatial justice, first and foremost an unequal distribution of infrastructure vis-à-vis education, housing, recreation, jobs, and so on. To determine which spheres critically underpin a decision to leave, young people’s preferences for their futures were studied under the CASYPOT project, involving 6 localities in four of the Euroregion’s states. In the event, the research was able to confirm a capacity on the part of youth surveys to deliver information on factors critical to decision-making that can be regarded as of value as regional policies are reorientated to try and ensure a higher level of spatial justice. The survey showed that factors most likely to prompt out-migration among young people relate to insufficient educational services and the inadequacy of the labour market.


Baláž, V., & Williams, A.M. (2018). Migration decisions in the face of upheaval: An experimental approach. Population, Space and Place, 24(1), pp. 13. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2115
Baláž, V., Williams, A. M., & Fifeková, E. (2016). Migration Decision Making as Complex Choice: Eliciting Decision Weights under Conditions of Imperfect and Complex Information through Experimental Methods. Population, Space and Place, 22(1), 36-53. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1858
Bassett, S. M. (2013). The role of spatial justice in the regeneration of urban spaces. Groningen: Network of European-United States Regional and Urban Studies Program And Master of Urban Planning Capstone Project, Rijkuniversiteit Groningen - International School of Spatial Policy Studies. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8bf4/a0d1ac4f674a8e8fbcf5fb63e4181c8c3f3b.pdf
Bukowski, M., Koryś, P., & Śniegocki, A. (2017). Na rozdrożu - polityka regionalna wobec globalnych przemian. Warsaw: Wise Europa.
Cazzuffi, C., & Fernández, J. (2018). Rural youth and migration in Ecuador, Mexico and Peru. Working Paper Series, 235. Santiago: Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural.
Connelly, S., & Bradley, K. (2004). Spatial justice. European spatial policy and the case of polycentric development. Proceedings of the ECPR Joint Sessions 2004. Uppsala: ECPR.
Cummings, C., Pacitto, J., Lauro, D., & Foresti, M. (2015). Why people move: understanding the drivers and trends of migration to Europe. ODI Working paper, 430. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Dalin, R., Bostedt, G., & Blusi, M. (2013). Ungdomar i Västernorrland - åsikter och attityder. Fou Västernorrland.
Dibeh, G., Fakih, A., & Marrouch, W. (2017). Decision to Emigrate Amongst the Youth in Lebanon. Discussion Paper Series, 10493. Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12347
Grassmueck, G., Goetz, S., & Shields, M. (2008). Youth Out-Migration from Pennsylvania: The Roles of Government Fragmentation vs. the Beaten Path Effect. The Journal of Regional Policy and Analysis, 38(1), 77-88.
Hagen-Zanker, J., & Mallett, R. (2016). Journeys to Europe. The role of policy in migrant decision-making. ODI Insights. Retrieved from https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/10297.pdf
Kim, S. (2008). Spatial Inequality and Economic Development: Theories, Facts, and Policies. Commission on Growth and Development Working Paper, 16. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Kramer, M. (2012). The Baltic Countries after Two Decades of Independence. Achievements, Setbacks, Internal Challenges. PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo, 200. Retrieved from http://www.ponarseurasia. org/sites/default/files/policy-memos-pdf/pepm200.pdf
Kuhnt, J. (2019). Literature review: drivers of migration. Why do people leave their homes? Is there an easy answer? A structured overview of migratory determinants. Discussion Paper, 9/2019. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik. http://dx.doi.org/10.23661/dp9.2019
Kureková, L. (2014). EU accession and youth labour mobility from Slovakia: labour market perspective. Slovak Governance Institute, Bratislava and Central European University. Budapest: ECPR General Conference. Retrieved from https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/6cf14694-a363-446b-ab3c-cfc312328d58.pdf
Lamberty, L. (2015). Explaining Baltic Migration After EU Accession: Determinants and Consequences. Retrieved from https://www.ehl.lu.se/media/ehl/snee/papers/lamberty.pdf
Manalo IV, J.A., & van de Fliert, E. (2013). Push and Pull Factors in Rural Filipino Youth's Outmigration from Agricultural Communities. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 10(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.199418
Okrasa, W. (2016). Przestrzenne aspekty nierówności społecznych: sprawiedliwość przestrzenna a zróżnicowanie dobrostanu lokalnego - ewaluacja wpływu środków rozwojowych [Spatial aspects of social inequality: spatial justice and differentiation of community wellbeing - evaluation of the impact of development resources]. Uniwersyteckie Czasopismo Socjologiczne, 15(2), 25-51.
Onsbacke, L., & Ambumsgård, R. (2017). Ett år med Lupp. Mer än en enkät. Stockholm: Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesfrågor.
Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, A. (2014). The Movement of Spatial Justice. Mondi Migranti, 8, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3280/MM2014-001001
Rye, J. F. (2011). Youth migration, rurality and class: a Bourdieusian approach. European Urban and Regional Studies, 18(2), 170-183. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776410390747
Skoglund, E. (2018). Deliverable 4.1.3. Evaluation report of youth migration indicator including the identification of shortfalls. YOUMIG Project. Retrieved from http://www.interreg-danube.eu/uploads/media/approved_project_output/0001/17/3c56ceb82b0f2612667f818bdfd2a7244ba5dce5.pdf
Śleszyński, P. (2018). Demograficzne wyzwania rozwoju regionalnego Polski [Demographic challenges of regional development of Poland]. Studia KPZK, 183, 225-247.
Soja, E. W. (2009). The city and spatial justice. Justice spatiale, spatial justice, 1, pp. 5. Retrieved from https://www.jssj.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/JSSJ1-1en4.pdf
Ubarevičienė, R., van Ham, M., & Burneika, D. (2014). Shrinking Regions in a Shrinking Country: The Geography of Population Decline in Lithuania 2001-2011. IZA Discussion Paper, 8026. Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10419/96813


Europa XXI



Start page:


End page:


Resource type:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

1429-7132 ; 10.7163/Eu21.2019.37.5


CBGiOŚ. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.6406, Cz.6407 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at:

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.





Citation style: