Object structure


Changes in the command and control potential of European cities in 2006-2016


Geographia Polonica Vol. 92 No. 3 (2019)


Dorocki, Sławomir : Autor ORCID ; Raźniak, Piotr : Autor ORCID ; Winiarczyk-Raźniak, Anna : Autor ORCID


Dorocki, Sławomir : Autor ; Winiarczyk-Raźniak, Anna : Autor ; Raźniak, Piotr : Autor



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



24 cm

Type of object:


Subject and Keywords:

command functions ; control functions ; transnational corporations ; gravity ; corporate headquarters ; cities ; Europe


The aim of the study was to analyze changes in the command and control functions of cities in 2006 and 2016 based on the method of gravity centers. The analysis was performed both for individual sectors of the economy as well as for the European economy as a whole. The shift in the center of gravity of the studied command and control functions of cities in the direction of Central Eastern Europe is examined in the paper. The fairly recent development of CEE and European integration increasing to the east and south has triggered the relocation of many companies from west to east and has also increased the importance of local companies. It may therefore be argued that the importance of the command and control functions of cities in developing countries has also increased (Poland, Russia). There is also a related decline in the importance of the so-called blue banana region and cities in Great Britain and Germany. This is especially visible in terms of the number of corporate headquarters in the western part of the continent. However, the shift in capital is not that clear – and both German and British corporations still remain the leaders in Europe.


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