RCIN and OZwRCIN projects


Title: Green Saharas, Grey Markets: Commercial Exploitation of North African Prehistory, an Overview


Barford, Paul M.

Date issued/created:


Resource type:



Archaeologia Polona Vol. 58 (2020)


Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology Polish Academy of Sciences

Place of publishing:



ill. ; 24 cm

Type of object:



Atwood, R. 2004. Stealing history: tomb raiders, smugglers, and the looting of the ancient world, New York
Bar-Yosef, D. 2013. Towards a typology of stone beads in the Neolithic Levant, Journal of Field Archaeology 38(2): 129–142
Barker, A. 2018. Looting, the antiquities trade, and competing valuations of the past, Annual Review of Anthropology 47: 455–474
Bednarik, R. G. 2011. About ostrich eggshell beads. The Bead Forum 59: 2–8 (accessible online: http://www.ifrao.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/97Ostrich.pdf )
Berner, J. 2002. American Indian artifacts: genuine or reproduction?, Roswell
Brodie, N. 1998. Pity the poor middlemen, Culture Without Context 3: 7–9
Brodie, N. 2015. The internet market in antiquities. In F. Desmarais (ed.), Countering Illicit Traffic in cultural goods: the global challenge of protecting the World’s Heritage, Paris, 11-20
Brodie, N. 2017. Virtually gone! The internet market in antiquities. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Experts on the Return of Cultural Property; Overseas Korean Cultural Heritage Foundation: Seoul, Korea, 2017, Seoul, 190-204
Brodie, N. and Renfrew, C. 2005. Looting and the world’s archaeological heritage: the inadequate response, Annual Review of Anthropology 34: 343–361
Brodie, N. and Tubb, K. W. 2002. Illicit antiquities: the theft of culture and the extinction of archaeology, London
Brooks, N. 2013. Beyond collapse: climate change and causality during the Middle Holocene Climatic Transition, 6400–5000 years before present, Geografisk Tidsskrift – Danish Journal of Geography 112(2): 93–104
Bruhns, K. 2000. www.plunderedpast.com, Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 18(2): 14–15
Chippindale, C. and Gill, D. 2001. On-line auctions: a new venue for the antiquities market, Culture Without Context 9: 4–12
Corbey, R. 2000. Tribal art traffic a chronicle of taste, trade and desire in Colonial and Post-colonial Times, Amsterdam
Deckers, P., Dobat, A., Ferguson, N., Heeren, S., Lewis, M. and Thomas, S. 2018. The Complexities of metal detecting policy and practice: a response to Samuel Hardy, Open Archaeology 4(1), Electronic document: https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/opar/4/1/article-p322.xml
Di Lernia, S. 2005. Incoming tourism, outgoing culture: tourism, development and cultural heritage in the Libyan Sahara, Journal of North African Studies 10(3–4): 441–457
Ede, C. 1976. Collecting Antiquities an Introductory Guide, London
Fay, E. 2011. Virtual artifacts: eBay, antiquities, and authenticity, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 27: 449–464
Fay, E. 2013. Trading in antiquities on eBay: the changing face of the illicit trade in antiquities. PhD Thesis, Keele University October 2013, Electronic document: http://eprints.keele.ac.uk/197/1/Fay%20PhD%202013.pdf
Francis, P. 1994. Beads of the world: a collector’s guide with price reference, Atglen
Garve, R., Garve, M., Türp, J. C. and Meyer, C. G. 2017. Labrets in Africa and Amazonia: medical implications and cultural determinants, Tropical Medicine and International Health 22(2): 232–240
Gilmer, M. [2009]. About NWA meteorites. Galactic stone and ironworks. Webpage: http://galactic-stone.com/about-nwa-meteorites/
Graburn, N. H. H. 1977. Ethnic and tourist arts: cultural expressions from the Fourth World, Berkeley
Greenwell, D. 2005. Flint artifacts of North Africa, Self published [no place given]
Hardy, S. A. 2017. Curbing the spoils of war, UNESCO Courier 2017(3): 12–16
Harsch, E. 2006. Combating inequality in Africa, Africa Renewal 20(2): 16–21
Hothem, L. 1992. Fake chipped artifacts: some considerations, Lancaster–Ohio
Hugot, H.-J. 1991. Essai sur les armatures de pointes de flčches du Sahara, Calvisson
Jury, L. 2005. Art market scandal: British Museum expert highlights growing problem of fake antiquities, Independent, 24 May 2005. Available online: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/artmarket-scandal-british-museum-expert-highlights-growing-problem-of-fake-antiquities-222955.html
Keats, J. 2014. Playing the meteorite market, Discover magazine, June 2014: 34. Available online: https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/playing-the-meteorite-market)
Keenan, J. 2003. Tourism, development and conservation: a Saharan perspective. In D. J. Mattingly, S. McLaren, E. Savage, Y. al-Fasatwi, and K. Gadgood (eds), Natural resources and cultural heritage of the Libyan Desert: proceedings of a conference held in Libya. 14–21 December 2002, London, 14-21, Electronic document: http://www.psi.org.uk/ehb/docs/keenan-tourism-200302.pdf
Keenan, J. 2005. Looting the Sahara: The material, intellectual and social implications of the destruction of cultural heritage (briefing), Journal of North African Studies 10(3–4): 471–489
Keenan, J. 2013. The material, intellectual and social implications of the destruction of cultural heritage (Briefing). In J. Keenan (ed.), The Sahara: past, present and future, Abingdon, 214-232
Klenker, E. K., Dreikluft, R., Milburn, M. and Jiang, Z. 2016. Sahara: material culture of early communities: prehistoric artifacts, Self published [no place given]
Krishnan, N., Ibarra, G. L., Narayan, A., Tiwari, S. and Vishwanath, T. 2016. Uneven odds, unequal outcomes: inequality of opportunity in the Middle East and North Africa, Washington, D. C., World Bank Group Report, Electronic document: https://bit.ly/2BBjJj8
Lehr, D. 2019. Art and antiquities: conduits for money laundering and terrorist financing, AML Challenges, Dec. 2018 – Feb. 2019 (Association of Certified Anti-Money Laundering Specialists), Available online: https://www.acamstoday.org/art-and-antiquities-conduits-for-money-laundering-and-terrorist-financing/
Lever, M. 2016. A damaged past: the effects of historical artefact collecting on the stone artefact record, Victoria Excavations, Surveys and Heritage Management in Victoria 5: 47–50
Lhote, H. 1958. A la Découverte des Fresques du Tassili, Paris
Lidington, H. 2002. The role of the Internet in removing the “shackles of the saleroom”: anytime, anyplace, anything, anywhere, Public Archaeology 2: 67–84
Mackenzie, S. and Yates, D. 2016. What is grey about the “grey market” in antiquities. In J. Beckert and M. Dewey (eds), The architecture of illegal markets: towards an economic sociology of illegality in the economy, Oxford, 70-86
McIntosh, R. J., Togola, T. and McIntosh, S. K. 1995. The Good Collector and the premise of Mutual respect Among Nations, African Arts 28: 60–69
Sawaged, T. 1999. The Collecting Culture: an exploration of the collector mentality and archaeology’s response, Nebraska Anthropologist 121: 80–88
Simak, E., Dreibelbis, C., Liechty, J., Donato, M. and Dubin, L. S. 2010. African beads: Jewels of a continent, Denver
Stanish, C. 2009. Forging ahead. Or, how I learned to stop worrying and love eBay, Archaeology 62(3): 58–60
Stevenson, A. 2016. Conflict antiquities and conflicted antiquities: addressing commercial sales of legally excavated artefacts, Antiquity 90(349): 229–236
Tokely, J. 2006. Rescuing the Past: The cultural heritage crusade, Exeter–Charlottesville
UNESCO 1970. Convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, Export and transfer of ownership of cultural property, Paris
van Ham, T., Leukfeldt, R., Bremmers, B., Stol, W. and van Wijk, A. 2011. The art of the Internet: a study of illegal online trading in cultural goods, The Hague
Vernet, R. and Le Quellec, J.-L. 2017. Recension de: Eckhard Klenkler, Robert Dreikluft, Mark Milburn and Z. Jiang 2016. Sahara. Material culture of early communities, Les Cahiers de l’ l’Association des Amis de l’Art Rupestre Saharien 19: 295–297
Vitelli, K. D. 2000. E-commerce in antiquities, Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 18(4): 4–5
Whittaker, J. C. and Stafford, M. 1999. Replicas, fakes, and art: the twentieth century Stone Age and its effects on archaeology, American Antiquity 64(2): 203–214
Wright, D. K. 2017. Humans as agents in the termination of the African Humid Period Front, Earth Science 5: 1–14
Zerboni, A., Salvatori, S., Vignola, P. and Mohammed, A. A. 2018. The long-distance exchange of amazonite and increasing social complexity in the Sudanese Neolithic, Antiquity 92(365): 1195–1209


Archaeologia Polona



Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:




Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:133605 ; 0066-5924 ; doi:10.23858/APa58.2020.018


IAiE PAN, call no. P 357 ; IAiE PAN, call no. P 358 ; IAiE PAN, call no. P 356 ; click here to follow the link




Creative Commons Attribution BY-SA 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-SA 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-SA 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences



Object collections:

Last modified:

Feb 18, 2021

In our library since:

Jul 26, 2020

Number of object content hits:


Number of object content views in PDF format


All available object's versions:


Show description in RDF format:


Show description in RDFa format:


Show description in OAI-PMH format:




Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information