Object

Title: Eugenics on the periphery: or why a ‘Belarusian eugenic project’ did not come true (1918-44)

Creator:

Zamoiski, Andrei

Date issued/created:

2016

Resource Type:

Article : original article

Subtitle:

Acta Poloniae Historica T. 114 (2016) ; Social Sciences and Politics in Early Twentieth Century East-Central Europe

Contributor:

Gilley, Christopher. Ed. ; Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences ; Polish National Historical Committee

Publisher:

Instytut Historii Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Place of publishing:

Warszawa

Description:

p. 59-84 ; 23 cm

Abstract:

The interwar period was characterized by the active development of national eugenics projects in Europe. A number of factors contributed to the interest in eugenics and the desire to implement them: the making of new states and consolidation of nations in East Central Europe, the need to overcome the legacy of the Great War and deal with social problems (for example, venereal diseases and prostitution), and the development of scientific and international academic contacts. Belarusian debates on eugenics took place mostly on the periphery of the more developed discourses – those in Russia, Poland, and, later on, in Germany. The Russian scholars in the larger university centres contributed to the development of the Soviet eugenics project, which gained the support of the Soviet authorities. In the first decade of their rule, the Bolsheviks were not against debates on eugenics about how to improve the ‘nature of man’. The Soviet eugenics project, which focused on studying problems of heredity, genetics, and genealogy, was stopped when the authorities placed rigid ideological controls over science. In Soviet Belarus, no academic circle appeared that engaged in the debates on eugenics. The development of the eugenics movement in Poland was closely linked to the formation of the newly established Polish state. After the Great War, the Polish eugenics movement made attempts to integrate itself into the public life of the country. Polish medical doctors contributed to the development of the eugenics movement. During the Second World War, a group of Belarusian nationalists tried to formulate a basis for a Belarusian racial eugenics project, following the main ideas of Nazi ‘racial hygiene’.

References:

Adams Mark (ed.), The Wellborn Science. Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil and Russia (New York and Oxford 1990). ; Chiari Bernhard, Alltag hinter der Front. Besatzung, Kollaboration und Widerstand in Weißrussland 1941–1944 (Düsseldorf, 1998). ; Felder Björn and Weindling Paul (eds.), Baltic Eugenics. Bio-Politics, Race and Nation in Interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918–1940 (Amsterdam and New York, 2013). ; Friedman Alexander and Hudemann Rainer (eds.), Diskriminiert – vernichtet – vergessen. Behinderte in der Sowjetunion, unter nationalsozialistischer Okkupation und im Ostblock 1917–1991 (Stuttgart, 2016). ; Gawin Magdalena and Uzarczyk Kamila (eds.), Eugenika – biopolityka – państwo: z historii europejskich ruchów eugenicznych w pierwszej połowie XX w. (Warszawa, 2010). ; Gerlach Christian, Kalkulierte Morde. Die deutsche Wirtschafts- und Vernichtungspolitik in Weißrußland 1941 bis 1944 (Hamburg, 1998). ; Górny Maciej, Wielka wojna profesorów : nauki o człowieku (1912–1923) (Warszawa, 2014). ; Krementsov Nikolaĭ, ‘From “Beastly Philosophy” to Medical Genetics: Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union’, Annals of Science, lxviii, 1 (2011), 61–92. ; Soĭfer Valeriĭ, Vlast’ i nauka. Razgrom kommunistami genetiki v SSSR (Moskva, 2002).

Relation:

Acta Poloniae Historica

Volume:

114

Start page:

59

End page:

84

Format:

application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:62657 ; 2450-8462 ; 10.12775/APH.2016.114.03

Source:

IH PAN, sygn. A.295/114 Podr. ; IH PAN, sygn. A.296/114 ; click here to follow the link

Language:

eng

Rights:

Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY-ND 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY-ND 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Library of the Institute of History PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure ; European Union. European Regional Development Fund

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