Object structure


Kontrastowość warunków bioklimatycznych w strefie polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku w ciepłej połowie roku = Contrasting bioclimatic conditions within the Polish Baltic coastal zone in the warm half-year


Przegląd Geograficzny T. 88 z. 1 (2016)


Mąkosza, Agnieszka ; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga



Place of publishing:


Date issued/created:



24 cm

Subject and Keywords:

bioclimate ; coastal areas ; BCI index ; variation ; bioclimatic stress


The work described here examined contrasts in biothermal conditions relating to location within the Polish Baltic coastal zone. For the purposes of this study it was assumed that tourists at different towns might relocate from west to east in the following ways: Świnoujście–Ustka (Ś–U), Świnoujście–Gdańsk (Ś–G), Świnoujście–Hel (Ś–H), Ustka–Gdańsk (U–G), Ustka–Hel (U–H), Gdańsk–Hel (G–H). The basic data used to make comparisons were then hourly values for meteorological elements obtained from the relevant stations in the warm (April-September) half-years of the 2001-2010 period. Also for the purposes of this study, the variability characterising bioclimatic conditions was calculated by means of the bioclimatic contrast index – BCI, which offers an assessment of the adaptation stress in the circumstances of a sudden change in weather conditions or change of location. Such changes in external conditions induce stress in an organism and entail the activation of adaptation processes. The BCI index combines various bioclimatic indices, i.e. UTCI, SW, Iclp and PST, with values then being represented by the classes of contrast described as very small, small, moderate, high, very high and extremely high. Values assumed by the index are positive where warmer bioclimatic conditions characterise the home location in comparison with the chosen destination, or else negative where colder conditions are present at the home location than at the destination. The contrast to be noted between the stations studied was mostly (in 83% of cases) found to be very small. On average, the contrasts termed small were present in 14.4% of comparisons, with moderate on 2.4%, and high occasionally only. Contrasts capable of being defined as very high and extremely high were not found between the stations under analysis during the study period. However, it was demonstrated that relocations from Świnoujście to: Ustka, Gdańsk or Hel, or else from Gdańsk to Hel would tend to involved colder weather conditions, while relocations from Ustka to Gdańsk or further to Hel – would prevalently be associated with warming weather conditions. Over the 24-hour period, the most marked bioclimatic contrasts between the aforementioned pairs of stations were those noted at 12 noon and 3 p.m. The most limited contrasts in turn characterised night-time – from 9 p.m. to 3 a.m. The marked predominance of very small bioclimatic contrasts and the complete lack of very high and extremely high classes in the findings can be attributed to the confi nement of the area under analysis to a single (coastal) region.


1. Blażejczyk K., 2011, Assessment of regional bioclimatic contrasts in Poland, Miscellanea Geographica, 15, s. 79-91. ; 2. Błażejczyk K., Vinogradova V., 2014, Adaption Strain Index for tourists traveling from Central and Northern Europe to the Mediterranean, Finisterra, 49, 98, s. 135-152. ; 3. Chabior M., Korpalska-Chabior M., 2006, Warunki bioklimatyczne Łeby, Balneologia Polska, 3, s. 182-189. ; 4. Freitas C. R. de, 2003, Tourism climatology: evaluating environmental information for decision making and business planning in the recreation and tourism sector, International Journal of Biometeorology, 48, s. 45-54. ; 5. Freitas de C.R., Grigorieva E.A., 2009, The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI): a preliminary study of the methodology applied to climatic conditions of the Russian Far East, International Journal of Biometeorology, 53, s. 307-315. ; 6. Kozłowska-Szczęsna T., Błażejczyk K., Krawczyk B., 1997, Bioklimatologia człowieka. Metody i ich zastosowanie w badaniach bioklimatu Polski, Monografie IGiPZ PAN, 1, Warszawa. ; 7. Kozłowska-Szczęsna T., Krawczyk B., Kuchcik M., 2004, Wpływ środowiska atmosferycznego na zdrowie i samopoczucie człowieka, Monografie IGiPZ PAN, 4, Warszawa. ; 8. Koźmiński C., Michalska B., 2008, Zmienność minimalnej dobowej temperatury powietrza w strefie polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku, Acta Agrophysica, 12, 3, s. 713-736. ; 9. Koźmiński C., Michalska B., 2010, Zmienność liczby dni gorących i upalnych oraz odczucia cieplne w strefie polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku, Acta Agrophysica, 15, 2, s. 347-358. ; 10. Koźmiński C., Świątek M., 2012, Effects of the Baltic Sea on air temperature and humidity and on wind speed at the Polish coast, Acta Agrophysica, 19, 3, s. 597-610. ; 11. Kuchcik M., Błażejczyk K., Szmyd J., Milewski P., Błażejczyk A., Baranowski J., 2013, Potencjał leczniczy klimatu Polski, IGiPZ PAN, Wydawnictwo Akademickie Sedno, Warszawa. ; 12. Mateeva Z., Filipov A., 2003, Bioclimatic distance index in the Rila and Rhodopy area of Bulgaria, [w:] K. Błażejczyk, B. Krawczyk, M. Kuchcik (red.), Postępy w badaniach klimatycznych i bioklimatycznych, Prace Geograficzne, IGiPZ PAN, 188, Warszawa, s. 295-302. ; 13. Owczarek M., 2005, Ekstremalne warunki termiczne na Wybrzeżu i Pomorzu według przedziałów kwantylowych średniej dobowej temperatury powietrza, [w:] E. Bogdanowicz, U. Kossowska-Cezak, J. Szkutnicki (red.), Ekstremalne zjawiska hydrologiczne i meteorologiczne, PTGeofizyczne, IMGW, Warszawa, s. 70-80.


Przegląd Geograficzny





Start page:


End page:


Resource Type:



File size 1 MB ; application/pdf

Resource Identifier:

0033-2143 ; 10.7163/PrzG.2016.1.6


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, sygn.: Cz.181, Cz.3136, Cz.4187 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 3.0 PL license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 3.0 PL] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 3.0 PL license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Programme Innovative Economy, 2010-2014, Priority Axis 2. R&D infrastructure ; European Union. European Regional Development Fund