Title: Changes in the command and control potential of European cities in 2006-2016


Geographia Polonica Vol. 92 No. 3 (2019)



Place of publishing:



24 cm


The aim of the study was to analyze changes in the command and control functions of cities in 2006 and 2016 based on the method of gravity centers. The analysis was performed both for individual sectors of the economy as well as for the European economy as a whole. The shift in the center of gravity of the studied command and control functions of cities in the direction of Central Eastern Europe is examined in the paper. The fairly recent development of CEE and European integration increasing to the east and south has triggered the relocation of many companies from west to east and has also increased the importance of local companies. It may therefore be argued that the importance of the command and control functions of cities in developing countries has also increased (Poland, Russia). There is also a related decline in the importance of the so-called blue banana region and cities in Great Britain and Germany. This is especially visible in terms of the number of corporate headquarters in the western part of the continent. However, the shift in capital is not that clear – and both German and British corporations still remain the leaders in Europe.


BATRA R., RAMASWAMY V., ALDEN D.L., STEENKAMP J.B.E.M., RAMACHANDER S., 2000. Effects of brand local and nonlocal origin on consumer attitudes in developing countries. Journal of Consumer Psychology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327663JCP0902_3 ; BEAVERSTOCK J.V., SMITH R.G., TAYLOR P.J., 1999. A roster of world cities. Cities, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 445-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(99)00042-6 ; BEG I., 1999. Cities and competitiveness. Urban Studies, vol. 36, no. 5-6, pp. 795-810. https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098993222 ; BOGUŚ M., DOROCKI S., 2018. Międzynarodowe korporacje biotechnologiczne i farmaceutyczne na świecie. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 129-141. ; CSOMÓS G., 2013. The command and control centers of the United States (2006/2012): An analysis of industry sectors influencing the position of cities. Geoforum, vol. 12, no. 50, pp. 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.09.015 ; CSOMÓS G., 2017. Cities as command and control centres of the world economy: An empirical analysis, 2006-2015. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, no. 38, pp. 7-26. https://doi.org/10.1515/bog-2017-0031 ; DOBBS R., REMES J., MANYIKA J., ROXBURGH CH., SMIT S., SCHAER F., 2012. Urban world: Cities and the rise of the consuming class. New York: McKinsey Global Institute. ; DOMAŃSKI B., 2004. Local and regional embeddedness of foreign industrial investors in Poland. Prace Geograficzne, vol. 114, pp. 37-54. ; DOROCKI S., 2014. Contemporary trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in the world. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, vol. 25, pp. 108-131. ; DOROCKI S., BOGUŚ M., 2014. Regional variety of biotechnology development in Asia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 120, pp. 197-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.097 ; DOROCKI S., STRUŚ P., 2017. Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie dynamiki rozwoju lokalnego w Małopolsce na podstawie wybranych cech społeczno-gospodarczych. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 7-25. ; DOROCKI S., RAŹNIAK P., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., BOGUŚ M., 2017. The role of global cities in creation of innovative industry sectors. Case study - life sciences sector. Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability (IMES 2017), pp. 136-146. ; DOROCKI S., RAŹNIAK P., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., 2018. Zmiany funkcji kontrolno-zarządczych w miastach europejskich w dobie globalizacji. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 128-143. ; GORZELAK G., 1996. The regional dimension of transformation in Central-Europe. Routlege: London. ; HOSPERS G.J., 2003. Beyond the Blue Banana? Structural change in Europe's geo-economy. Intereconomics, vol. 38, pp. 76-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03031774 ; JAŻDŻEWSKA I., 2006. Zmiany położenia środka ciężkości miast i ludności miejskiej w Polsce w XX wieku. Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 561-574. ; KILAR W., 2015. Settlement concentration of economic potential represented by IT corporations. Geographia Polonica, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 123-141. https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0009 ; KINCSES Á., NAGY Z., TÓTH G., 2013. The Spatial Structures of Europe. Acta Geographica Slovenica, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 43-70. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS53103 ; KRAMAR H., 2006. Economic convergence on different spatial levels: The conflict between cohesion and growth. Raumforschung und Raumordnung, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 18-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03183103 ; KUDŁACZ T., 1981. Zastosowanie metody grawitacji i grafów do hierarchizacji jednostek przestrzennych. Przegląd Geograficzny, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 519-534. ; METAXAS T., TSAVDARIDOU M., 2013. From 'blue banana' to 'red octopus' and the development of Eastern and southern European cities: Warsaw and Lisbon. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 15-31. ; MORRILL R.L., SYMONS J., 1977. Efficiency and equity aspects of optimum location. Geographical Analysis, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 215-225. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1977.tb00575.x ; MUSIL R., 2014. European global cities in the recent economic crisis. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 492-503. https://doi.org/10.1111/tesg.12106 ; NI P., TAYLOR P.J., DERUDDER B., 2011. The global city process score [in:] P.J. Taylor, P. Ni, B. Derudder, M Hoyler, J Huang and F Witlox (eds.), Global urban analysis: A survey of cities in globalization, London: Earthscan, pp. 48-55. ; PARKINSON M., HUTCHINS M., SIMMIE J., CLARK G., VERDONK H., 2004. Competitive European cities: Where do the core cities stand? London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. ; RAŹNIAK P., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., 2015. Did the 2008 global economic crisis affect large firms in Europe? Acta Geographica Slovenica, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 127-139. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.740 ; RAŹNIAK P., DOROCKI S., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., 2015. Ranga miasta w świetle syntetycznego wskaźnika stabilności gospodarczej. Studia Miejskie, vol. 18, pp. 119-130. ; RAŹNIAK P., DOROCKI S., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., 2017. Permanence of the economic potential of cities based on sector development. Chinese Geographical Science, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-017-0850-5 ; RAŹNIAK P., DOROCKI S., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., 2018. Eastern European cities as command and control centres in time of economic crisis. Acta Geographica Slovenica, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 101-110. https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.3124 ; RAŹNIAK P., DOROCKI S., WINIARCZYK-RAŹNIAK A., PŁAZIAK M., SZYMAŃSKA A.I., 2017. Zmiany pozycji ekonomicznej miast Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w przypadku kryzysu dominującego sektora. Ekonomista, vol. 2017, no. 1, pp. 67-83. ; SASSEN S., 2000. The global city: Strategic site/new frontier. American Studies, vol. 41, no. 2/3, pp. 79-95. ; SITE SELECTION FOR LIFE SCIENCES COMPANIES IN EUROPE, 2016. KPMG, https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/ch/pdf/site-selectionfor-life-sciences-companies-europe-en.pdf [28 May 2019]. ; SMĘTKOWSKI M., 2015. Spatial patterns of regional economic development in Central and Eastern European countries. Geographica Polonica, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 539-556. https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0033 ; STORPER M., 1995. The resurgence of regional economies, ten years later: The region as a nexus of untraded interdependencies. European Urban and Regional Studies, vol. 2, pp. 191-221. https://doi.org/10.1177/096977649500200301 ; ŚLESZYŃSKI P., 2007. Gospodarcze funkcje kontrolne w przestrzeni Polski. Prace Geograficzne, vol. 213, Warszawa: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN. ; ŚLESZYŃSKI P., 2008. Ocena powiązań gospodarczych i kapitałowych miedzy miastami [in:] K. Saganowski, M. Zagrzejewska-Fiedorowicz, P. Żuber (eds.), Ekspertyzy do Koncepcji Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania Kraju 2008-2033, Tom I, Warszawa: Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego, pp. 335- 391. ; ŚLESZYŃSKI P., 2015. Economic control functions in Poland in 2013. Geographica Polonica, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 701-708. https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0041 ; TAYLOR P., HOYLER M., 2000. The spatial order of European cities under conditions of contemporary globalization. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geographie, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 176-189. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9663.00104 ; TÓTH G., CSOMÓS G., 2016. Mapping the position of cities in corporate research and development through a gravity model-based bidimensional regression analysis. Regional Statistics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 217-220. ; TÓTH G., NAGY Z., 2017. The world's economic centre of gravity. Regional Statistics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 177-180. ; WEGENER M., KUNZMANN K.R., 1996. New spatial patterns of European urbanisation [in:] D. Pumain, T. Saint-Julian (eds.), Urban networks in Europe, Paris: John Libbey, pp. 7-18. ; WEIDMANN N.B., KUSE D., GLEDITSCH K.S., 2010. The geography of the international system: The CShapes dataset. International Interactions, vol. 36 no. 1, pp. 86-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050620903554614 ; ZDANOWSKA N., 2017. Distribution of foreign direct investment across the national urban system in countries of Central and Eastern Europe in 2013. Geographica Polonica, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 5-24. https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0084 ; ZIOŁO Z., 2006. Zróżnicowanie światowej przestrzeni przemysłowej w świetle koncentracji siedzib zarządów wiodących korporacji. Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, vol. 8, pp. 9-26.


Geographia Polonica





Start page:


End page:


Detailed Resource Type:



File size 0,9 MB

Resource Identifier:

oai:rcin.org.pl:81469 ; 0016-7282 (print) ; 2300-7362 (online) ; 10.7163/GPol.0149


CBGiOS. IGiPZ PAN, call nos.: Cz.2085, Cz.2173, Cz.2406 ; click here to follow the link



Language of abstract:



Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license

Terms of use:

Copyright-protected material. [CC BY 4.0] May be used within the scope specified in Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 license, full text available at: ; -

Digitizing institution:

Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Original in:

Central Library of Geography and Environmental Protection. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Projects co-financed by:

Operational Program Digital Poland, 2014-2020, Measure 2.3: Digital accessibility and usefulness of public sector information; funds from the European Regional Development Fund and national co-financing from the state budget.



Citation style:

This page uses 'cookies'. More information