Place of publishing:
Subject and Keywords:
A solid international legal framework for family planning supports national family planning programs. Yet it is not by itself a program guarantee, especially among Muslim nations, many of which have stalled FP transitions and weak or absent government assistance for FP programs. The success of Iran’s family planning program, therefore, is all the more noteworthy. Since its establishment in 1993, it has been one of the most successful state family planning (FP) programs in the world, having reduced the national annual growth rate from 2.7% in the late 1960s to little over 1% currently. This paper explores international and national legal, institutional, demographic, and cultural-geographical influences that may have contributed to its results.
1. Abbasi-Shavazi M., Mehryar A. et al., 2002, Revolution, War and Modernization: Population Policy and Fertility Change in Iran, Journal of Population Research, 19, 1, pp. 35–36. ; 2. Abbasi-Shavazi M., 2002, Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division, New York, 2004, pp. 425–439. ; 3. Adler M. A., 1997, Social change and declines in marriage and fertility in Eastern Germany, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59 (1), pp. 37–49. ; - ; 4. Afshar H., 1985, Women, State and Ideology in Iran, Third World Quarterly, 7, 2. ; - ; 5. Aghajanian A., 1998, Family Planning and Recent Fertility Trends in Iran Measure Evaluation Project, Population Center University of North Carolina, pp. 13–14. ; 6. Apud A., Mehryar H., 2005, Shi'ite Teachings. Pragmatism and Fertility Change in Iran, [in:] Jones G. W., Karim M. (eds.), Islam, the State and Population, London, p. 133. ; 7. Bongaarts J., 1978, A framework for analyzing the proximate determinants of fertility, Population and development review, pp. 105–132. ; - ; 8. Caldwell J., 1980, Mass Education as a Determinant of the Timing of Fertility Decline, Population and Development Review, 6 (2), (Jun, 1980), pp. 225–255. ; - ; 9. Carr D. L., Pan W. K., Bilsborrow R. E., 2006, Declining Fertility on the Frontier: The Ecuadorian Amazon, Population and Environment, 28, 1, pp. 17–39. ; - ; 10. Carr D. L., 2007, Resource Management and Fertility in Mexico's Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve: Campos, Cash, and Contraception in the Lobster-fishing Village of Punta Allen, Population and Environment, 29 (2), pp. 83–101. ; - ; 11. Carr D. L., Norman E., 2008, Global civil society? The Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, Geoforum, 39, pp. 358–371. ; - ; 12. Coale A. J., 1986, Population trends and economic development, [in:] Menken J. (ed.), World Population and U.S. Policy: The Choices Ahead, New York, W. W. Norton, pp. 96–104. ; 13. Davis J. D., López-Carr D., 2010, The Effects of Migrant Remittances on Population-Environment Dynamics in Migrant Origin Areas: International Migration, Fertility and Consumption in Highland Guatemala, Population and Environment, 32, pp. 216–237. ; - ; 14. Eriksson M., 2000, Reproductive freedom in the Context of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Kluwer Law International. ; 15. Esfahani H., Pesaran H., 2008, Iranian Economy in the Twentieth Century: A Global Perspective, Iranian Studies, 42, 2 (2009), pp. 177–211. ; - ; 16. Freedman L., Isaacs S., 1993, Human Rights and Reproductive choice, Studies in Family Planning, 24, 1, pp. 18–30. ; - ; 17. Goode W. J., 1963, World revolution and family patterns, Free Press of Glencoe, New York. ; 18. Greenhalgh S., 1988, Families and Networks in Taiwan's Economic Development, [in:] Edwin A., Greenhalgh S., Greenhalgh W. (eds.), Contending Approaches to East Asian Development. ; 19. Hoover E. M.,1958, Population Growth and Economic Development in Low-Income Countries: A Case Study of India's Prospects, Princeton, Princeton University Press. ; 20. Jafari-Mojdehi A., 2003, Imbalance in Marriage Status in Iran [Persian], Journal of Social Sciences, 5, pp. 83–104. ; 21. Kearns R. A., 1993, Place and health: towards a reformed medical geography, The Professional Geographer, 45 (2), pp. 139–147. ; - ; 22. Kohler H., Kohler I., 2002, Fertility Decline in Russia in the Early and Mid 1990s: The Role of Economic Uncertainty and Labour Market Crises, European Journal of Population, 18, pp. 233–262. ; - ; 23. Laresn J., 2001, Iran's Birth Rate Plummeting at Record Pace: Success Provides a Model for Other Developing Countries, Earth Policy Institute: http://www.mnforsustain.org/iran_model_of_reducing_fertility.htm ; 24. McNicoll G., 1980, Institutional determinants of fertility change, Population and Development Review, 6 (3), p. 441–462. ; - ; 25. McNicoll G., 1985, The nature of institutional and community effects on demographic behaviour:a discussion, [in:] Casterline J. B. (ed.), The collection and analysis of community data,Voorburg, International Statistical Institute, pp. 177–184. ; 26. McNicoll G., 1994, Institutional analysis of fertility, Population Council Working Paper, 62, New York, The Population Council. ; 27. Mahmood S. T., 1977, Family planning: The Muslim viewpoint, Vikas Publishing House. ; 28. Mahmoudain H., 2005, The Increasing Age at Marriage: Examining the Protective Factors [Persian], Journal of Social Sciences, 24, pp. 27–53. ; 29. Malekafzali H., 2004, Population control and Reproductive Health in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Archives of Iranian Medicine, 7 (24), pp. 247–250. ; 30. McIntosh C., Finkle J., 1995, The Cairo Conference on Population and Development: A New Paradigm. Population Council, Population and Development Review, 21 (2), pp. 223–260. ; - ; 31. Mehryar A., 1997, Reproductive health in The Islamic Republic of Iran: Organization and Indicators, Tehran, Institute for Research on Planning and Development. ; 32. Mehryar A., Tabibian M. et al., 1999, Poverty in Iran: Policies and Estimates, Institute for Research on Planning and Development, Tehran. ; 33. Merrick T., 2001, Population and poverty: A review of reviews, [in:] Birdsall N., Kelley A. C., Sinding S. (eds.), Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World, New York, Oxford University Press, pp. 201–212. ; 34. Moinifar H. S., 2007, Religious Leaders and Family Planning in Iran, Iran & the Caucasus, pp. 299–313. ; 35. Moghadam V., 1988, Women, Work and Ideology in the Islamic Republic, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 20, 2, pp. 221–243. ; - ; 36. Moore R., 2007, Family Planning in Iran, 1960–1970, [in:] Robinson W. C., Ross J. A. (eds.), In the Global Family Planning Revolution: Three Decades of Population Policies and Programs, The World Bank Washington, DC, pp. 33–58. ; 37. Omran A. R., 1992, Family Planning in the Legacy of Islam, London, 40 ; 38. Price M., Lewis M., 1993, The reinvention of cultural geography, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83 (1), pp. 1–17. ; - ; 39. Reichenbach L., 2009, The Global Reproductive Health and Rights Agenda: Opportunities and Challenges for the Future, [in:] Reichenbach L., Roseman J. (eds.), Reproductive Health and Human Rights, University of Pennsylvania, pp. 21–40. ; 40. Rutkevich, M. N., 1996, Depopulyatsiya ili vymiranie? [Depopulation or extinction?], Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya 23 (3), pp. 104–110. ; 41. Salehi-Isfahani D., Abbasi Shavazai M. et al., 2010, Family Planning and Fertility Decline in Rural Iran: The Impact of Rural Health Clinics, Health Economics, 19, pp. 159–180. ; - ; 42. Shahvazi M., Morgan S. et al., 2009, Family Change and Continuity in Iran: Birth Control Use before First Pregnancy, Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, pp. 1309–1324. ; - ; 43. Sutherland E., Carr D. L., Curtis S., 2004, Fertility and the environment in a natural resource dependent economy: Evidence from Petén, Guatemala, Población y Salud en Mesoamérica, 2 (1), pp. 1–12. ; 44. Trewartha G. T., 1953, A case for population geography, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 43 (2), pp. 71–97. ; - ; 45. UN, 1968, Proclamation of Tehran, http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/l2ptichr.htm ; 46. UN, 1984, Report of the international Conference on Population, 1084, Mexico City, 6–14 August 1984 (New York: UN Doc E/CONF.76/19, 1984), pp. 8–40. ; 47. UN, 1999 Statement of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Delegation, ICPD+5 International Forums, the Hague, http://www.un.org/popin/icpd/icpd5/hague/iran.htm ; 48. Witte J. C., Wagner G. G., 1995, Declining fertility in East Germany after unification: A demographic response to socioeconomic change, Population and Development Review, 21 (2), pp. 387–397. ; -